betula lenta bark oil america
volatile oil obtained from the bark of the sweet birch, betula lenta l., betulaceae
 
Notes:
Steam distilled from the bark of Betula Lenta L. Blends well with mint oils. tsca definition 2008: extractives and their physically modified derivatives. betula lenta, betulaceae
  • BOC Sciences
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      68917-50-0 Oils, sweet birch
       
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      Birch Sweet Essential Oil
      Birch Sweet Essential Oil has a similar natural chemistry to Wintergreen. The main constituent is Methyl Salicylate and this is a superb pain reliever with an almost addictive aroma BUT it can be lethal so handle with care and dilute down well before massage, accounting for no more than 2-3% of any massage blend.
       
       
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      02-31600 BIRCH OIL SWEET
       
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      7OP00823 Birch Oil Sweet
       
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Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
Name: betula lenta l. bark oil
CAS Number: 68917-50-0 
Beilstein Number: 0971516
CoE Number: 89
Also Contains: betula lenta twig extract
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
FEMA Number: 2154  sweet birch oil
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):68917-50-0 ; BIRCH, SWEET, OIL (BETULA LENTA L.)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 1.14100 to 1.19100 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 9.494 to  9.910
Refractive Index: 1.50700 to 1.54700 @  20.00 °C.
Flash Point: 205.00 °F. TCC ( 96.11 °C. )
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 0.3163 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
Stability:
 cream
 detergent
 hair spray
 lipstick
 lotion
 non-discoloring in most media
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
 
Odor Type: minty
 
Odor Strength: medium ,
recommend smelling in a 10.00 % solution or less
 
Substantivity: 12 hour(s) at 100.00 %
 
 sweet  wintergreen  spicy  herbal  
Odor Description:
at 10.00 % in dipropylene glycol. 
sweet wintergreen spice herbal
Luebke, William tgsc, (1996)
 
 sweet  wintergreen  aromatic  spicy  herbal  phenolic  
Odor Description:
at 2.00 %.  
sweet, methyl salicylate, aromatic, spicy and herbal with a phenolic nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 22, No. 6, 41, (1997)
 
 
Flavor Type: minty
 
 wintergreen  clean  cooling  phenolic  
Taste Description:
at 15.00 ppm.  
Methyl salicylate, clean and refreshing with a cooling phenolic nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 22, No. 6, 41, (1997)
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
Absolute Cosmetic Essentials
Birch, Sweet
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Oils, sweet birch
Bristol Botanicals
Birch Sweet essential oil Betula lenta, USA
Camden-Grey Essential Oils
Birch (sweet) essential oil
Odor: characteristic
Use: Its aroma is sweet, spicy and minty, a wintergreen chewing gum odor. A powerful oil which could irritate sensitive skin. Best used with caution or not at all. Has an invigorating, even rousing effect on the spirits. Stimulates the sweat glands aiding the body in releasing harmful toxins, can be used as a diuretic for water retention and edema, increases the flow of urine and its diuretic properties could also help with obesity and cellulitis. Useful in a massage for rheumatism and muscle pain since it eliminates accumulation of uric acid in the joints. Blends well with chamomile, frankincense, lemon and cajeput. It's used as a flavor for gum and toothpaste.
Hermitage Oils
Birch Sweet Essential Oil
Odor: characteristic
Use: Birch Sweet Essential Oil has a similar natural chemistry to Wintergreen. The main constituent is Methyl Salicylate and this is a superb pain reliever with an almost addictive aroma BUT it can be lethal so handle with care and dilute down well before massage, accounting for no more than 2-3% of any massage blend.
Noble Molecular Research
For experimental / research use only.
Birch Oil
Parchem
sweet Birch Oil
Penta International
BIRCH OIL SWEET
PerfumersWorld
Birch Oil Sweet
Odor: sweet wintergreen
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Birch Oil Sweet
Sigma-Aldrich
Birch oil, sweet, natural, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
The Perfumers Apprentice
Birch - Sweet Wild Harvested (USA) J.Steele
Ungerer & Company
Birch Oil Sweet Southern FCC
White Lotus Aromatics
Birch, Sweet essential oil
Odor: intensely sweet, crisp, minty-creamy
Use: In natural perfumery is used in apothecary blends, culinary creations, herbal notes and can add a unique penetrating sweetness to a wide variety of creations including high class florals when used in trace amounts.
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 36/38 - Irritating to skin and eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Acute toxicity, Oral (Category 4), H302
Skin irritation (Category 2), H315
Eye irritation (Category 2A), H319
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramexclamation-mark.jpg
 
Signal word Warning
Hazard statement(s)
H302 - Harmful if swallowed
H315 - Causes skin irritation
H319 - Causes serious eye irritation
Precautionary statement(s)
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 - Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P301 + P312 - IF SWALLOWED: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician IF you feel unwell.
P302 + P352 - IF ON SKIN: wash with plenty of soap and water.
P305 + P351 + P338 - IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P330 - Rinse mouth.
P332 + P313 - IF SKIN irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P337 + P313 - IF eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.
P362 - Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  1700 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 907, 1979.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 907, 1979.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Code of Practice Notification of the 49th Amendment to the IFRA Code of Practice
Recommendation for betula lenta bark oil america usage levels up to:
  15.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -110.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -48.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -4300.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -44.00000
fruit ices: -44.00000
gelatins / puddings: -0.07000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -310.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
EPI System: View
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 68917-50-0
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 betula lenta l. bark oil
Chemidplus: 0068917500
RTECS: RJ3698000 for cas# 68917-50-0
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
References:
 betula lenta l. bark oil
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 68917-50-0
Pubchem (sid): 135354660
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Other Information:
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS): View
Export Tariff Code: 3301.29.6000
Wikipedia: View
FAO: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STEAM DISTILLATION
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
No odor group found for these
 arnica montana flower extractFL/FR
aldehydic
 agrumen nitrileFR
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
anise
sweet fennel seed oilFL/FR
anisic
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
 dihydroanetholFL/FR
balsamic
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
siam benzoin absoluteFL/FR
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
laevo-bornyl acetateFL/FR
isobornyl acetateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 methyl (E)-cinnamateFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
berry
 raspberry ketone methyl etherFL/FR
camphoreous
 camphor tree bark oilFL/FR
 herbal ethanoneFR
caramellic
 ethyl maltolFL/FR
cheesy
2-heptanoneFL/FR
citrus
sweet orange peel oil c.p. brazilFL/FR
earthy
3-octen-2-oneFL/FR
fatty
 decanolFL/FR
 perillaldehyde propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
floral
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 benzyl acetateFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
isobutyl salicylateFL/FR
 cassie absolute replacerFL/FR
 coriander oil replacerFR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 geraniolFL/FR
 geranium oil africaFL/FR
 heliotropinFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 ho leaf oilFR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
(Z)-jasmoneFL/FR
 lavender absolute replacerFR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 linaloolFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 menthadienyl formateFR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 phenethyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
(Z)-rose oxideFL/FR
 terpinyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
fruity
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
3-benzyl-4-heptanoneFL/FR
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
 diethyl malonateFL/FR
1,4-diethyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo(3.2.1)octaneFR
 ethyl heptanoateFL/FR
 green acetateFR
 herbanate (Givaudan)FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
green
holy basil leaf oilFL/FR
sec-butyl-3-methyl but-2-ene thioateFL/FR
black currant bud absolute replacerFL/FR
1,5-dimethyl-3-isopropyl-2-oxabicyclo(2.2.2)octane 
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-leaf acetalFL/FR
3-methylthio-4-heptanone 
 privet dioxaneFR
 agate fragranceFR
 carrot seed oil (daucus carota ssp. maximus (desf.) ball)FR
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 carvacryl methyl etherFL/FR
 celery ketoneFL/FR
 coriander seed concreteFR
 dehydroxylinalool oxideFL/FR
isodihydrolavandulolFR
(Z)-isodihydrolavandulyl acetateFR
 elder flower absolute (sambucus canadensis and s. nigra)FR
 herbal acetalFR
 inula root oilFR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
 lavender absolute franceFL/FR
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
 marigold absolute (tagetes patula)FR
para-menthane-3,8-diolFL/FR
1-para-menthen-9-yl acetateFL/FR
T-muurololFL/FR
 niaouli oilFR
3-nonanolFL/FR
 nopyl acetateFR
3-octanon-1-olFL/FR
 oregano oil replacerFR
 oregano specialtyFR
 origanum oilFL/FR
curled parsley leaf oilFL/FR
D-(+)-alpha-pineneFL/FR
 piperitoneFL/FR
 rosemary oil africaFL/FR
 rosemary oil tunisiaFL/FR
common tansy flower oilFR
common tansy flower oil dutchFR
licorice
sweet basil oleoresinFL/FR
mentholic
 cornmint oil indiaFL/FR
dextro,laevo-mentholFL/FR
laevo-menthyl acetateFL/FR
dextro-piperitoneFL/FR
minty
 agathosma crenulata leaf oilFL/FR
 artemisia deserti krasch. oil iranFR
laevo-carvoneFL/FR
(+)-dihydrocarvoneFL/FR
homomenthyl acetateFL/FR
 pennyroyal herb oil americaFL/FR
 pennyroyal oil fractionsFL/FR
 peppermint oil idahoFL/FR
 peppermint oil special fractionsFL/FR
 spearmint oil americaFL/FR
 tetrahydrocarvoneFL/FR
 wintergreen oilFL/FR
 benzyl isoeugenolFL/FR
 carrot weed oilFL/FR
 carvacryl ethyl etherFL/FR
 cassia bark oil chinaFL/FR
 cinnamon bark oil ceylonFL/FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
(-)-cubenolFL/FR
 cuminyl alcoholFL/FR
black currant bud absoluteFL/FR
 eugenolFL/FR
 ginger root absoluteFL/FR
(R)-gamma-heptalactone 
 hollyberry fragranceFR
 maja fragranceFR
sweet marjoram oil (origanum majorana var. tenuifolium weston) cyprus 
sweet marjoram oil replacerFR
alpha-methyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 ocimum gratissimum herb oil indiaFR
 origanum majorana oilFL/FR
 origanum majorana oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 outdoors specialtyFR
white pepper oilFL/FR
black pepper oil CO2 extractFL/FR
black pepper oleoresinFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
 saffron oil CO2 extractFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
thujonic
common tansy oil canadaFR
tonka
 coumarinFR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
 vanillyl acetateFL/FR
waxy
1-dodecanolFL/FR
woody
ar-abietatriene 
 cedarwood oil himalayaFR
 cistus twig/leaf oilFL/FR
 gurjun balsam oilFR
 patchouli absoluteFR
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 polylimoneneFL/FR
 sandalwood oilFL/FR
 sandalwood oil replacerFR
 santallFR
(±)-tetrahydronootkatoneFL/FR
(Z)-woody amyleneFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
ar-abietatriene 
 arnica montana flower extractFL/FR
holy basil leaf oilFL/FR
 benzyl crotonateFL
4-butyl thiazoleFL
sec-butyl-3-methyl but-2-ene thioateFL/FR
 carvacryl ethyl etherFL/FR
 carvacryl methyl etherFL/FR
 cassie absolute replacerFL/FR
(+)-dihydrocarvoneFL/FR
(±)-(cis+trans)-1,2-dihydroperillaldehydeFL
 fleabane oil (erigeron canadensis)FL
(R)-gamma-heptalactone 
2-heptyl cyclopropane carboxylic acidFL
sweet marjoram oil (origanum majorana var. tenuifolium weston) cyprus 
para-menthane-3,8-diolFL/FR
 methyl (E)-cinnamateFL/FR
3-methylthio-4-heptanone 
T-muurololFL/FR
3-nonanolFL/FR
3-octanon-1-olFL/FR
 perillaldehyde propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
D-(+)-alpha-pineneFL/FR
 polylimoneneFL/FR
 terpinyl isobutyrateFL/FR
(±)-tetrahydronootkatoneFL/FR
 hexyl 3-mercaptobutanoateFL
anise
sweet fennel seed oilFL/FR
balsamic
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
laevo-bornyl acetateFL/FR
berry
 raspberry ketone methyl etherFL/FR
buttery
 bovolideFL
camphoreous
 camphor tree bark oilFL/FR
 rosemary oil tunisiaFL/FR
caramellic
 ethyl maltolFL/FR
cheesy
2-heptanoneFL/FR
cherry
 heliotropinFL/FR
citrus
1,5-dimethyl-3-isopropyl-2-oxabicyclo(2.2.2)octane 
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 linaloolFL/FR
sweet orange peel oil c.p. brazilFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
cooling
isobutyl salicylateFL/FR
dextro,laevo-mentholFL/FR
homomenthyl acetateFL/FR
creamy
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
3-octen-2-oneFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
floral
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 geraniolFL/FR
 geranium oil africaFL/FR
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
fruity
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
 benzyl acetateFL/FR
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
3-benzyl-4-heptanoneFL/FR
black currant bud absolute replacerFL/FR
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
 diethyl malonateFL/FR
 ethyl heptanoateFL/FR
1-para-menthen-9-yl acetateFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
green
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 carrot weed oilFL/FR
 celery distillatesFL
 celery ketoneFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
(Z)-leaf acetalFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
(Z)-rose oxideFL/FR
herbal
2-acetoxy-1,8-cineoleFL
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 dihydroanetholFL/FR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
 lavender absolute franceFL/FR
 oregano oleoresinFL
 origanum majorana oilFL/FR
 origanum majorana oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 origanum oilFL/FR
curled parsley leaf oilFL/FR
curled parsley oleoresinFL
 rosemary oil africaFL/FR
honey
 phenethyl acetateFL/FR
licorice
sweet basil oleoresinFL/FR
medicinal,
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
minty
 agathosma crenulata leaf oilFL/FR
laevo-carvoneFL/FR
 cornmint oil indiaFL/FR
laevo-menthyl acetateFL/FR
 pennyroyal herb oil americaFL/FR
 pennyroyal oil fractionsFL/FR
 peppermint oil idahoFL/FR
 peppermint oil special fractionsFL/FR
 piperitoneFL/FR
dextro-piperitoneFL/FR
 spearmint oil americaFL/FR
 tetrahydrocarvoneFL/FR
 wintergreen oilFL/FR
soapy
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
1-dodecanolFL/FR
spicy
sweet bay oleoresinFL
siam benzoin absoluteFL/FR
 benzyl isoeugenolFL/FR
 cassia bark oil chinaFL/FR
 cinnamon bark oil ceylonFL/FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
(-)-cubenolFL/FR
 cuminyl alcoholFL/FR
black currant bud absoluteFL/FR
 eugenolFL/FR
 ginger root absoluteFL/FR
alpha-methyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
white pepper oilFL/FR
black pepper oil CO2 extractFL/FR
black pepper oleoresinFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
 saffron oil CO2 extractFL/FR
tropical
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
 vanillyl acetateFL/FR
waxy
 decanolFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
woody
isobornyl acetateFL/FR
 cistus twig/leaf oilFL/FR
 dehydroxylinalool oxideFL/FR
(Z)-jasmoneFL/FR
 sandalwood oilFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 acaciaFR
 alpine bouquetFR
 appleFR
 apricotFR
 beer birch beerFL
 blackberryFR
 blueberryFR
 boxwood berryFR
 bubble gumFR
 carnationFR
 cassiaFR
 cassia blossomFR
 castoreumFR
 cherryFR
 chypreFR
 cloveFR
 cornmintFL/FR
 crabapple blossomFR
 cranberryFR
 currantFR
 currant bud absolute replacerFL/FR
 dateFR
 fernFR
 gardeniaFR
 gooseberryFR
 grapeFR
 grenadineFL
 hay new mown hayFR
 herbalFR
 huckleberryFR
 hyssopFL/FR
 jasminFR
 leather russian leatherFR
 licoriceFR
 magnoliaFR
 meadowsweetFR
 mimosaFR
 mintFR
 mulberryFR
 orientalFR
 peachFR
 peppermintFR
 raspberryFR
 resedaFR
 root beerFR
 rueFL/FR
 sarsaparillaFL
 sassafrasFR
 spearmintFR
 spiceFR
 spicewoodFR
 strawberryFR
 tea green teaFR
 tomatoFL
 tuberoseFR
 valerianFL/FR
 wallflowerFR
 wintergreenFR
 wormwood oil replacerFR
 ylang ylangFR
 zibelineFR
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 betula lenta
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Synonyms:
 birch bark oil (betula lenta) america
 birch black oil (betula lenta) america
 birch cherry oil (betula lenta) america
sweet birch oil
black birch oil (betula lenta) america
cherry birch oil (betula lenta) america
southern birch oil (betula lenta) america
sweet birch oil (betula lenta) america
 birch oil sweet (betula lenta) america
 birch oil sweet southern FCC
 birch oil, sweet
 birch southern oil (betula lenta) america
 birch sweet oil (betula lenta) america
 volatile oil obtained from the bark of the sweet birch, betula lenta l., betulaceae
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Articles:
PubMed: Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests.
PubMed: Indirect effects of pandemic deer overabundance inferred from caterpillar-host relations.
PubMed: Foliar δ15N is affected by foliar nitrogen uptake, soil nitrogen, and mycorrhizae along a nitrogen deposition gradient.
PubMed: Oak loss increases foliar nitrogen, δ(15)N and growth rates of Betula lenta in a northern temperate deciduous forest.
PubMed: Hydraulic responses to environmental perturbations in Tsuga canadensis and Betula lenta.
PubMed: Deer herbivory alters forest response to canopy decline caused by an exotic insect pest.
PubMed: Effects of winter temperatures on two birch (Betula) species.
PubMed: Water use and carbon exchange of red oak- and eastern hemlock-dominated forests in the northeastern USA: implications for ecosystem-level effects of hemlock woolly adelgid.
PubMed: Forest regeneration composition and development in upland, mixed-oak forests.
PubMed: Estimates of net photosynthetic parameters for twelve tree species in mature forests of the southern Appalachians.
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