picea abies leaf oil
volatile oil expressed from the needles of the norway spruce, picea abies (l.), pinaceae
 
Notes:
None found
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Name: picea abies leaf oil
CAS Number: 91770-69-3 
ECHA EC Number: 294-855-9
Category: fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
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Organoleptic Properties:
 
Odor Type: green
 
Odor Strength: medium
 
 green  fruity  earthy  pine  lemon  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
green fruity earthy fern pine lemon
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
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Suppliers:
 None found
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Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  400 mg/kg
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. Vol. 9, Pg. 91, 1971.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: fragrance agents
IFRA Code of Practice Notification of the 49th Amendment to the IFRA Code of Practice
contains the following IFRA (Annex) restricted components: (non-analysis max. level reference only)
citronellol Max. Found: 0.28 % and Reason: Sensitization
longifolene Max. Found: 0.22 % and Reason: Sensitization
Recommendation for picea abies leaf oil usage levels up to:
  8.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Recommendation for picea abies leaf oil flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
 picea abies leaf oil
Chemidplus: 0091770693
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References:
 picea abies leaf oil
Pubchem (sid): 135351825
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Other Information:
Export Tariff Code: 3301.29.6000
Wikipedia: View
FAO Doc: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STEAM DISTILLATION
FAO: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STEAM DISTILLATION
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
No odor group found for these
 ethyl (R)-2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
amber
(Z)-abienolFL/FR
animal
 methyl (E)-2-octenoateFL/FR
balsamic
 abies alba cone oilFR
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
 balsam fir oleoresinFL/FR
 fir carboxylateFR
 hexyl cinnamateFR
 spruce needle absoluteFL/FR
red spruce oilFR
berry
 mulberry fragranceFR
citrus
 backhousia citriodora leaf oilFR
(R)-citronellyl nitrileFR
 citrus specialtyFR
2-heptanolFL/FR
earthy
 methyl 3-hexenoateFL/FR
ethereal
 cyclohexyl formateFL/FR
fatty
3-decen-2-oneFL/FR
 hexyl pivalateFR
 methyl (E)-2-hexenoateFL/FR
 methyl 2-hexenoateFL/FR
floral
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehyde diethyl acetalFR
 boronia absoluteFL/FR
 boronia absolute replacerFL/FR
 boronia fragranceFR
 cassie specialty (acacia farnesiana)FR
 cassis cyclohexeneFR
 dihydrocarvyl acetateFL/FR
(±)-2,3-dihydrofarnesolFL/FR
6,8-dimethyl-2-nonanolFR
(E)-geranyl acetoneFL/FR
 geranyl formateFL/FR
 geranyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 hexyl lactateFL/FR
 hexyl nonanoateFL/FR
 jasmin cyclopentanolFR
 jasminum sambac flower oil CO2 extractFL/FR
(Z)-jasmoneFL/FR
(2-methoxy-1-methyl propyl) benzeneFR
para-methyl benzyl acetateFL/FR
 papaya isobutyrateFL/FR
 tilia cordata flower oil CO2 extractFR
fruity
 allyl amyl glycolateFR
 allyl butyrateFL/FR
3-allyl oxy-1,4-dimethyl bicyclo(3.2.1)octaneFR
isoamyl butyrateFL/FR
green apple fragranceFR
3-butyl bicyclo[3.2.1]-6-octen-2-oneFR
isobutyl octanoateFL/FR
 butyl propionateFL/FR
isobutyl propionateFL/FR
 cherry pentenoateFL/FR
 cinnamyl hexanoateFL/FR
2-cyclopentyl cyclopentanoneFL/FR
1,4-dibutyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo(3.2.1)octaneFR
 diethyl malonateFL/FR
 dimethyl succinateFL/FR
 ethyl (E)-3-hexenoateFL/FR
 ethyl 2-cyclohexyl propionateFR
 ethyl 2-hexenoateFL/FR
 ethyl 2-octenoateFL/FR
 ethyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 ethyl bicyclo(2.2.1)-5-heptene-2-carboxylateFL/FR
endo-ethyl bicyclo(2.2.1)-5-heptene-2-carboxylateFR
 ethyl levulinateFL/FR
 ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidateFL/FR
(E,E)-ethyl sorbateFL/FR
 fig crotonateFR
 fruity butanateFR
 geranyl ethyl etherFL/FR
 geranyl isovalerateFL/FR
2-heptyl butyrateFL/FR
 heptyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 heptyl valerateFR
2-hexen-1-olFL/FR
(E)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl anthranilateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl isobutyrateFL/FR
 hexyl (E)-tiglateFL/FR
 hexyl acetateFL/FR
 hexyl isovalerateFL/FR
 hexyl propionateFL/FR
 hexyl valerateFL/FR
 kiwi fragranceFR
 kiwi specialtyFR
 malus sylvestris fruit oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 mango fragranceFR
 mango specialtyFR
 methyl 3-nonenoateFL/FR
 methyl heptanoateFL/FR
 methyl octadienoateFL/FR
 methyl valerateFL/FR
3-methyl-2-butenalFL/FR
 nerolidyl isobutyrateFR
(Z)-6-nonen-1-al dimethyl acetalFR
 octen-1-yl cyclopentanoneFL/FR
 octyl butyrateFL/FR
2-pentyl furanFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl hexanoateFL/FR
4-phenyl-2-butyl acetateFL/FR
 pineapple pentenoateFL/FR
 prenyl hexanoateFL/FR
 rhubarb undecaneFR
 sorbyl butyrateFL/FR
(E,E)-sorbyl butyrateFL/FR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl butyrateFL/FR
 tropical specialtyFR
 tropical thiazoleFL/FR
 tropical trithianeFL/FR
green
 acetaldehyde benzyl 2-methoxyethyl acetalFL/FR
 actinidia chinensis fruit extractFL/FR
 actinidia chinensis fruit waterFR
 allyl phenethyl etherFR
 butyl heptanoateFL/FR
green cognac oilFL/FR
alpha-decalactoneFL/FR
 ethyl (E)-2-hexenoateFL/FR
 ethyl (E)-4-decenoateFL/FR
 galbanum specialtyFR
 green dioxolaneFR
 green note propionateFL/FR
 herbal cyclohexaneFR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl hexanoateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl isovalerateFL/FR
 hexen-1-yl oxypropane nitrileFR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl propionateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexenal propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
3-hexenyl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexenyl methyl etherFR
 hexyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 hexyl octanoateFL/FR
 manzanate (Givaudan)FL/FR
 neogallFR
(E)-2-pentenalFL/FR
 picea mariana leaf oilFR
 propylene acetalFL/FR
 sorbyl isobutyrateFL/FR
(E,E)-sorbyl isobutyrateFL/FR
1-[(3aS,7aR)-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-1H-inden-6-yl]ethanoneFR
 thiogeraniolFL/FR
2,4,8-trimethyl-5-oxatricyclo(6.2.1.0*2,6*)undecaneFR
herbal
 blue grass fragranceFR
6-methoxy-2,6-dimethyl octanalFR
(1S,5R)-myrtenyl acetateFL/FR
 tagete oil indiaFL/FR
 tricyclodecyl acetateFR
 viridiflorolFL/FR
minty
 carvyl acetateFL/FR
mushroom
(R)-1-octen-3-olFL/FR
nutty
2-methyl-3-ethoxypyrazineFL/FR
spicy
 cinnamyl propionateFL/FR
2,5-dimethyl bicyclo(3.2.1)-2-octen-3-yl acetate + 1,4-dimethyl bicyclo(3.2.1)-2-octen-3-yl acetateFR
sulfurous
4-methyl 4-mercaptopentan-2-one 1% solutionFL/FR
waxy
(E)-methyl geranateFL/FR
 octyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
winey
 methyl 3-acetoxyoctanoateFL/FR
woody
 abies alba cone extractFL/FR
 abies lasiocarpa oil canadaFR
 callitris intratropica wood oil australiaFR
(E+Z)-4,8-dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-olFL/FR
 spruce fragranceFR
 spruce needle oil canadaFL/FR
 verdoxanFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
 abies alba cone extractFL/FR
 acetaldehyde benzyl 2-methoxyethyl acetalFL/FR
 balsam fir oleoresinFL/FR
 boronia absolute replacerFL/FR
isobutyl octanoateFL/FR
 cinnamyl hexanoateFL/FR
2-cyclopentyl cyclopentanoneFL/FR
alpha-decalactoneFL/FR
(±)-2,3-dihydrofarnesolFL/FR
(E+Z)-4,8-dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-olFL/FR
 ethyl (R)-2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 ethyl 2-hexenoateFL/FR
 ethyl bicyclo(2.2.1)-5-heptene-2-carboxylateFL/FR
 geranyl ethyl etherFL/FR
2-heptyl butyrateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexenal propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
3-hexenyl acetateFL/FR
 hexyl nonanoateFL/FR
 hexyl propionateFL/FR
 hexyl valerateFL/FR
 malus sylvestris fruit oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 methyl (E)-2-hexenoateFL/FR
 methyl 2-hexenoateFL/FR
 methyl 3-acetoxyoctanoateFL/FR
4-methyl 4-mercaptopentan-2-one 1% solutionFL/FR
(E)-methyl geranateFL/FR
 methyl octadienoateFL/FR
2-methyl-3-ethoxypyrazineFL/FR
4-phenyl-2-butyl acetateFL/FR
 prenyl hexanoateFL/FR
 propylene acetalFL/FR
(E,E)-sorbyl butyrateFL/FR
(E,E)-sorbyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 viridiflorolFL/FR
 sorbyl isobutyrateFL/FR
alliaceous
 tropical thiazoleFL/FR
balsamic
 spruce needle absoluteFL/FR
berry
 heptyl isobutyrateFL/FR
cooling
 manzanate (Givaudan)FL/FR
estery
 ethyl acetoacetateFL/FR
fatty
 ethyl (E)-4-decenoateFL/FR
floral
 cinnamyl propionateFL/FR
 dihydrocarvyl acetateFL/FR
(E)-geranyl acetoneFL/FR
 geranyl isobutyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl anthranilateFL/FR
 jasminum sambac flower oil CO2 extractFL/FR
fruity
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
 boronia absoluteFL/FR
 butyl heptanoateFL/FR
isobutyl propionateFL/FR
 butyl propionateFL/FR
 cherry pentenoateFL/FR
 diethyl malonateFL/FR
 dimethyl succinateFL/FR
 ethyl (E)-2-hexenoateFL/FR
 ethyl (E)-3-hexenoateFL/FR
 ethyl 2-octenoateFL/FR
 ethyl levulinateFL/FR
 ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidateFL/FR
(E,E)-ethyl sorbateFL/FR
2-heptanolFL/FR
2-hexen-1-olFL/FR
(E)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl isobutyrateFL/FR
 hexyl acetateFL/FR
 hexyl lactateFL/FR
 methyl (E)-2-octenoateFL/FR
 methyl 3-hexenoateFL/FR
 methyl 3-nonenoateFL/FR
para-methyl benzyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl heptanoateFL/FR
 methyl valerateFL/FR
3-methyl-2-butenalFL/FR
 octen-1-yl cyclopentanoneFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl hexanoateFL/FR
 pineapple pentenoateFL/FR
 sorbyl butyrateFL/FR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl butyrateFL/FR
 tropical trithianeFL/FR
fusel
green cognac oilFL/FR
green
 actinidia chinensis fruit extractFL/FR
 allyl butyrateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl formateFL/FR
3-decen-2-oneFL/FR
 geranyl formateFL/FR
 geranyl isovalerateFL/FR
 green note propionateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl hexanoateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl isovalerateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl propionateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
 hexyl (E)-tiglateFL/FR
 hexyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 hexyl isovalerateFL/FR
 hexyl octanoateFL/FR
 papaya isobutyrateFL/FR
(E)-2-pentenalFL/FR
2-pentyl furanFL/FR
herbal
 tagete oil indiaFL/FR
minty
 carvyl acetateFL/FR
 thiogeraniolFL/FR
mushroom
(R)-1-octen-3-olFL/FR
waxy
isoamyl butyrateFL/FR
 octyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 octyl butyrateFL/FR
woody
(Z)-abienolFL/FR
(Z)-jasmoneFL/FR
(1S,5R)-myrtenyl acetateFL/FR
 spruce needle oil canadaFL/FR
 
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Potential Uses:
None Found
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 picea abies
Search Trop  Picture
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Synonyms:
 picea abies needle oil
 picea abies subsp. acuminata leaf oil
 picea abies subsp. europaea leaf oil
 picea excelsa leaf oil
 picea excelsa var. acuminata leaf oil
 picea montana leaf oil
 picea vulgaris var. europaea leaf oil
norway spruce leaf oil
norway spruce needle oil
norway spruce oil
 volatile oil expressed from the needles of the norway spruce, picea abies (l.), pinaceae
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Nitrogen-addition effects on leaf traits and photosynthetic carbon gain of boreal forest understory shrubs.
PubMed: Interactions and competition processes among tree species in young experimental mixed forests, assessed with chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf morphology.
PubMed: Weak vertical canopy gradients of photosynthetic capacities and stomatal responses in a fertile Norway spruce stand.
PubMed: New insights into carbon allocation by trees from the hypothesis that annual wood production is maximized.
PubMed: Response of green reflectance continuum removal index to the xanthophyll de-epoxidation cycle in Norway spruce needles.
PubMed: Mineral nutrition and elevated [CO(2)] interact to modify δ(13)C, an index of gas exchange, in Norway spruce.
PubMed: Leaf area and light use efficiency patterns of Norway spruce under different thinning regimes and age classes.
PubMed: Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.
PubMed: Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO(2).
PubMed: Interactions of thinning and stem height on the drought response of radial stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce (Picea abies).
PubMed: Needle metabolome, freezing tolerance and gas exchange in Norway spruce seedlings exposed to elevated temperature and ozone concentration.
PubMed: Effect of season, needle age and elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and Rubisco acclimation in Picea abies.
PubMed: Why does leaf nitrogen decline within tree canopies less rapidly than light? An explanation from optimization subject to a lower bound on leaf mass per area.
PubMed: Element interactions and soil properties affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest.
PubMed: Leaf litter leachates have the potential to increase lifespan, body size, and offspring numbers in a clone of Moina macrocopa.
PubMed: The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).
PubMed: Applicability of non-destructive substitutes for leaf area in different stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) focusing on traditional forest crown measures.
PubMed: The effect of tree architecture on conduit diameter and frequency from small distal roots to branch tips in Betula pendula, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.
PubMed: Simulating stand climate, phenology, and photosynthesis of a forest stand with a process-based growth model.
PubMed: Physiological responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings to drought stress.
PubMed: Fine root decomposition rates do not mirror those of leaf litter among temperate tree species.
PubMed: Microwave-assisted rapid plant sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy.
PubMed: Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.
PubMed: Fertilization effects on mean stomatal conductance are mediated through changes in the hydraulic attributes of mature Norway spruce trees.
PubMed: Fungal diversity of Norway spruce litter: effects of site conditions and premature leaf fall caused by bark beetle outbreak.
PubMed: Combining delta 13 C and delta 18 O analyses to unravel competition, CO2 and O3 effects on the physiological performance of different-aged trees.
PubMed: Acclimation of leaves to contrasting irradiance in juvenile trees differing in shade tolerance.
PubMed: Induction of photosynthesis and importance of limitations during the induction phase in sun and shade leaves of five ecologically contrasting tree species from the temperate zone.
PubMed: Element contents in leaves of four plant species (birch, mountain ash, fern and spruce) along anthropogenic and geogenic concentration gradients.
PubMed: Significance of ozone exposure for inter-annual differences in primary metabolites of old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees in a mixed forest stand.
PubMed: Tree species effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden.
PubMed: Testing the unifying theory of ozone sensitivity with mature trees of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies.
PubMed: Efficient extraction of proteins from woody plant samples for two-dimensional electrophoresis.
PubMed: Effects of metal-contaminated soil on the performance of young trees growing in model ecosystems under field conditions.
PubMed: Spectral multichannel monitoring of radiation within a mature mixed forest.
PubMed: Above-ground space sequestration determines competitive success in juvenile beech and spruce trees.
PubMed: Avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors.
PubMed: Container-grown tree seedling responses to sodium chloride applications in different substrates.
PubMed: Role of climate, crown position, tree age and altitude in calculated ozone flux into needles of Picea abies and Pinus cembra: a synthesis.
PubMed: Modelling of stomatal conductance and ozone flux of Norway spruce: comparison with field data.
PubMed: Acclimation to low irradiance in Picea abies: influences of past and present light climate on foliage structure and function.
PubMed: Nutrient contents and concentrations in relation to growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica along a European transect.
PubMed: Frost resistance and ice nucleation in leaves of five woody timberline species measured in situ during shoot expansion.
PubMed: Chronic effects of vapour phase di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on six plant species.
PubMed: Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.
PubMed: Photosynthesis in Norway spruce seedlings infected by the needle rust Chrysomyxa rhododendri.
PubMed: Comparing light interception with stand basal area for predicting tree growth.
PubMed: Dynamics of change in stomatal response and water status of Picea abies during a persistent drought period: a contribution to the traditional view of plant water relations.
PubMed: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and PSD fragmentation as means for the analysis of condensed tannins in plant leaves and needles.
PubMed: Winter at the alpine timberline. Why does embolism occur in norway spruce but not in stone pine?
PubMed: Soil temperature, gas exchange and nitrogen status of 5-year-old Norway spruce seedlings.
PubMed: Consequences of elevated CO2, augmented nitrogen-deposition and soil type on the soluble nitrogen and sulphur in the phloem of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) in a competitive situation.
PubMed: Age effects on Norway spruce (Picea abies) susceptibility to ozone uptake: a novel approach relating stress avoidance to defense.
PubMed: Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.
PubMed: Foliar morphological and physiological plasticity in Picea abies and Abies alba saplings along a natural light gradient.
PubMed: Hydraulic and stomatal adjustment of Norway spruce trees to environmental stress.
PubMed: Effects of nutrition and soil water availability on water use in a Norway spruce stand.
PubMed: Mean canopy stomatal conductance responses to water and nutrient availabilities in Picea abies and Pinus taeda.
PubMed: Effects of climatic warming on cold hardiness of some northern woody plants assessed from simulation experiments.
PubMed: Morphological and stomatal responses of Norway spruce foliage to irradiance within a canopy depending on shoot age.
PubMed: Strategies of a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in an olfactory landscape.
PubMed: A homeobox gene with potential developmental control function in the meristem of the conifer Picea abies.
PubMed: Effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) litter on seed germination and early seedling growth of four boreal tree species.
PubMed: Impact of atmospheric deposition on the status of planted Norway spruce stands: A comparative study between sites in southern Sweden and the northeastern Czech Republic.
PubMed: Variation in the ratio of shoot silhouette area to needle area in fertilized and unfertilized Norway spruce trees.
PubMed: Response of magnesium-deficient saplings in a young, open stand of Picea abies (L.) Karst. to elevated soil magnesium, nitrogen and carbon.
PubMed: Canopy dynamics and aboveground production of five tree species with different leaf longevities.
PubMed: A comparative study into the chemical constitution of cutins and suberins from Picea abies (L.) Karst., Quercus robur L., and Fagus sylvatica L.
PubMed: Status of sulphur in the foliage of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in relation to the mode of contamination.
PubMed: Estimation of leaf area index in fourteen southern Wisconsin forest stands using a portable radiometer.
PubMed: Performance of some growth variables.
PubMed: Regional variation in surface properties of Norway spruce and scots pine needles in relation to forest decline.
PubMed: Crown architecture and stemwood production in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).
PubMed: Changes in carbon allocation patterns in spruce and pine trees following irrigation and fertilization.
PubMed: Buffer capacities of leaves, leaf cells, and leaf cell organelles in relation to fluxes of potentially acidic gases.
PubMed: Seasonal Fluctuation of Reserve Materials in the Trunkwood of Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].
PubMed: The enrichment of (18)O in leaf water under natural conditions.
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