Occurs in garlic. Potential nutriceutical
  • BOC Sciences
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      21593-77-1 S-Allyl-L-cysteine
  • Endeavour Specialty Chemicals
    • Endeavour Specialty Chemicals Ltd
      Expertise in high impact aroma chemicals
      Endeavour Speciality Chemicals offers high-impact aroma chemicals, at small to medium scale.
      Speciality Chemical has more than 25 years experience of manufacturing high-impact aroma chemicals. With our core expertise in sulfur and heterocyclic chemistries, Endeavours products have applications in a range of industry sectors including flavours and fragrances, pharmaceutical research and material sciences. Endeavour also offer custom synthesis and contract manufacturing services at their UK manufacturing site.
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      AT0500 S-Allyl-L-cysteine
  • Glentham Life Sciences
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
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      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
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      01-18300 S-ALLYL-L-CYSTEINE
  • Robinson Brothers
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      A1468 S-Allyl-L-cysteine >98.0%(LC)(T)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
CAS Number: 21593-77-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
FDA UNII: 81R3X99M15
Nikkaji Web: J490.173H
MDL: MFCD00151975
XlogP3-AA: -2.10 (est)
Molecular Weight: 161.22407000
Formula: C6 H11 N O2 S
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: flavoring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1710  S-allyl-L-cysteine
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 17.036  S-allyl-L-cysteine
FEMA Number: 4322 S-allyl-L-cysteine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):21593-77-1 ; S-ALLYL-L-CYSTEINE
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white to tan powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 1.19100 @  25.00 °C.
Refractive Index: 1.54200 @  20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 214.00 to  216.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 300.00 to  301.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.001000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C.
Flash Point: 275.00 °F. TCC ( 135.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 1.310
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: refrigerate in tightly sealed containers.
Soluble in:
 water, slightly
 water, 3.291e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: roasted
Odor Strength: high ,
recommend smelling in a 0.10 % solution or less
 cooked  roasted  
Odor Description:
at 0.10 % in propylene glycol. 
cooked roasted
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
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Cosmetic Information:
None found
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For experimental / research use only.
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
For experimental / research use only.
Changzhou Longo Chemical
Endeavour Specialty Chemicals
Speciality Chemical Product Groups
For experimental / research use only.
S-Allyl-L-cysteine (HPLC) ≥98%
Glentham Life Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Penta International
Robinson Brothers
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
S-Allyl-L-cysteine ≥98% (HPLC)
For experimental / research use only.
S-Allyl-L-cysteine >98.0%(LC)(T)
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents
IFRA Purity Specification: < 0.1% free allyl alcohol
Recommendation for S-allyl-laevo-cysteine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 30.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 2.00 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): ND (μg/person/day)
NOEL (No Observed Effect Level): 250 (mg/kg bw per day)
Threshold of Concern:90 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: III
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 23
Click here to view publication 23
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 2.0000025.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: 2.0000025.00000
cheese: 2.0000025.00000
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: 2.0000025.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: 2.0000025.00000
fish products: 2.0000025.00000
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: 2.0000025.00000
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: 2.0000025.00000
instant coffee / tea: 2.0000025.00000
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 2.0000025.00000
milk products: --
nut products: 2.0000025.00000
other grains: --
poultry: 2.0000025.00000
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: 2.0000025.00000
reconstituted vegetables: 2.0000025.00000
seasonings / flavors: 2.0000025.00000
snack foods: 2.0000025.00000
soft candy: --
soups: 2.0000025.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 91 (FGE.91): Consideration of simple aliphatic and aromatic sulphides and thiols evaluated by JECFA (53rd and 68th meetings) structurally related to aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups evaluated by EFSA in FGE.08Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 91, Revision 1 (FGE.91Rev1): Consideration of simple aliphatic and aromatic sulphides and thiols evaluated by JECFA (53rd and 68th meetings) structurally related to aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups evaluated by EFSA in FGE.08Rev3 (2011)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 91, Revision 2 (FGE.91Rev2): Consideration of simple aliphatic and aromatic sulphides and thiols evaluated by the JECFA (53rd and 68th meetings) structurally related to aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups evaluated by EFSA in FGE.08Rev5 (2012)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 91, Revision 3 (FGE.91Rev3): consideration of aliphatic, aromatic and a,-unsaturated sulfides and thiols evaluated by JECFA (53rd, 61st, 68th and 76th meetings), structurally related to substances in FGE.08Rev5
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 9793905
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
 (2R)-2-amino-3-prop-2-enylsulfanylpropanoic acid
Chemidplus: 0021593771
RTECS: HA2466200 for cas# 21593-77-1
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 (2R)-2-amino-3-prop-2-enylsulfanylpropanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid): 9793905
Pubchem (cas): 21593-77-1
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS): View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C16759
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB34323
FooDB: FDB012675
Export Tariff Code: 2930.90.9190
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
 garlic oil chinaFL/FR
S-(methyl thio) butyrateFL/FR
 grapefruit mercaptanFL/FR
 tonka bean oleoresinFR
 ethyl vinyl ketoneFL/FR
 ferula assa-foetida absoluteFL/FR
 methyl 3-(methyl thio) propionateFL/FR
2-methyl 5-(methyl thio) furanFL/FR
 methyl mercaptanFL/FR
3-(methyl thio) hexanolFL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
 allyl methyl disulfideFL
 allyl methyl trisulfideFL
 allyl propyl disulfideFL
 allyl propyl sulfideFL
 allyl propyl trisulfideFL
 diethyl trisulfideFL
3,6-diethyl-1,2,4,5-tetrathiane and 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane mixture 1% in vegetable oil triglyceriFL
 diisopropyl sulfideFL
 diisopropyl trisulfideFL
 dimethyl tetrasulfideFL
 dipropyl sulfideFL
 ethyl isothiocyanateFL
 ethyl methyl trisulfideFL
 ethyl propyl disulfideFL
 ethyl propyl trisulfideFL
3-(ethyl thio) butanolFL
(Z+E)-5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-butyl) thiazolineFL
(Z+E)-5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-methyl propyl) thiazolineFL
4-(methyl thio) butanolFL
1-phenyl-3(5)-propyl pyrazoleFL
3-isopropenyl pentane dioic acidFL
(±)-3-(methyl thio) heptanalFL
3-(methyl thio) methyl thiopheneFL
2-methyl-1-methyl thio-2-buteneFL
 allyl disulfideFL
 allyl mercaptanFL
 allyl thiopropionateFL
 benzyl mercaptanFL
1,3-butane dithiolFL
 cyclopentyl mercaptanFL
 diethyl disulfideFL
 dipropyl trisulfideFL
 garlic oil chinaFL/FR
2-methyl thioacetaldehydeFL
 truffle sulfideFL
 grapefruit mercaptanFL/FR
 dimethyl sulfoxideFL
 allyl methyl sulfideFL
 garlic oleoresinFL
 phenyl mercaptanFL
 propyl 2-mercaptopropionateFL
3-(methyl thio) hexanolFL/FR
2-methyl 5-(methyl thio) furanFL/FR
S-(methyl thio) butyrateFL/FR
 methyl propyl disulfideFL
 methyl propyl trisulfideFL
 propyl thioacetateFL
 ethyl 3-(furfuryl thio) propionateFL
 hexyl mercaptanFL
 lactoyl ethanolamineFL
 lactoyl ethanolamine phosphateFL
 ethyl vinyl ketoneFL/FR
 allyl sulfideFL
 butyl mercaptanFL
 diallyl polysulfidesFL
 diallyl tetrasulfideFL
 diallyl trisulfideFL
 ethyl methyl sulfideFL
S-ethyl thioacetateFL
 ferula assa-foetida absoluteFL/FR
 furfuryl methyl sulfideFL
 furfuryl thiopropionateFL
 methyl mercaptanFL/FR
1-(methyl thio)-2-butanoneFL
2,4,6-trithiaheptane 10% in triacetinFL
 methyl 3-(methyl thio) propionateFL/FR
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Potential Uses:
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
Search Trop  Picture
 garlic bulb
Search Trop  Picture
 onion bulb
Search Trop  Picture
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S-allyl cysteine
S-allyl L-cysteine
 allyl laevo-cysteine
(2R)-3-(allyl thio)-2-aminopropanoic acid
(2R)-2-amino-3-(prop-2-en-1-yl sulfanyl) propanoic acid
(2R)-2-amino-3-prop-2-enylsulfanylpropanoic acid
 cysteine, S-2-propen-1-yl-
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PubMed: Oral Administration of (S)-Allyl-l-Cysteine and Aged Garlic Extract to Rats: Determination of Metabolites and Their Pharmacokinetics.
PubMed: EGFR gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells by garlic phytocompounds with special emphasis on S-Allyl-L-Cysteine Sulfoxide.
PubMed: Thermolysis kinetics and thermal degradation compounds of alliin.
PubMed: Evaluation of the Effects of S-Allyl-L-cysteine, S-Methyl-L-cysteine, trans-S-1-Propenyl-L-cysteine, and Their N-Acetylated and S-Oxidized Metabolites on Human CYP Activities.
PubMed: Alliin Attenuated RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species through Inhibiting Nox1.
PubMed: Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.
PubMed: Taste-Active Maillard Reaction Products in Roasted Garlic (Allium sativum).
PubMed: Protective Effects of AGE and Its Components on Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration.
PubMed: PMK-S005 Alleviates Age-Related Gastric Acid Secretion, Inflammation, and Oxidative Status in the Rat Stomach.
PubMed: Neuroprotective effect of S-allyl-l-cysteine derivatives against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cytotoxicity is independent of calpain inhibition.
PubMed: Downregulation of importin-9 protects MCF-7 cells against apoptosis induced by the combination of garlic-derived alliin and paclitaxel.
PubMed: Pharmacokinetics of S-Allyl-l-cysteine in Rats Is Characterized by High Oral Absorption and Extensive Renal Reabsorption.
PubMed: S-allyl-L-cysteine and isoliquiritigenin improve mitochondrial function in cellular models of oxidative and nitrosative stress.
PubMed: Gastroprotective Effects of PMK-S005 against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Damage in Rats.
PubMed: Identification of a flavin-containing S-oxygenating monooxygenase involved in alliin biosynthesis in garlic.
PubMed: Enzymatic synthesis of γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine, a naturally occurring organosulfur compound from garlic, by Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase.
PubMed: Effective production of S-allyl-L-cysteine through a homogeneous reaction with activated endogenous γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in garlic (Allium Sativum).
PubMed: Metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of S-allyl-L-cysteine in rats and dogs.
PubMed: Garlic γ-glutamyl transpeptidases that catalyze deglutamylation of biosynthetic intermediate of alliin.
PubMed: Protective effects of garlic extract, PMK-S005, against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced acute gastric damage in rats.
PubMed: S-allyl L-cysteine protects the retina against kainate excitotoxicity in the rat.
PubMed: Development and validation of S-allyl-L-cysteine in rat plasma using a mixed-mode reversed-phase and cation-exchange LC-ESI-MS/MS method: application to pharmacokinetic studies.
PubMed: Protective effect of S-allyl-L-cysteine against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal death is mediated by inhibition of calpain.
PubMed: Retraction. S-Allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced monocyte adhesion and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
PubMed: Effect of processing and storage time on the contents of organosulfur compounds in pickled blanched garlic.
PubMed: Effects of SAC on oxidative stress and NO availability in placenta: potential benefits to preeclampsia.
PubMed: The effects and underlying mechanisms of S-allyl l-cysteine treatment of the retina after ischemia/reperfusion.
PubMed: Alliinase from Ensifer adhaerens and Its Use for Generation of Fungicidal Activity.
PubMed: The "aged garlic extract:" (AGE) and one of its active ingredients S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) as potential preventive and therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD).
PubMed: [Effect of S-allyl-L-cysteine on isolate heart subject to ischemia/reperfusion].
PubMed: Effects of s-allyl-L-cysteine on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the mouse dentate gyrus.
PubMed: Oxidative insults to neurons and synapse are prevented by aged garlic extract and S-allyl-L-cysteine treatment in the neuronal culture and APP-Tg mouse model.
PubMed: Palladium(II) complex with S-allyl-L-cysteine: new solid-state NMR spectroscopic measurements, molecular modeling and antibacterial assays.
PubMed: Garlic flavonoids and organosulfur compounds: impact on the hepatic pharmacokinetics of saquinavir and darunavir.
PubMed: 3-(allyltrisulfanyl)-2-aminopropanoic acid, a novel nonvolatile water-soluble antimicrobial sulfur compound in heated garlic.
PubMed: S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced monocyte adhesion and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
PubMed: Protective effects of cysteine analogues on acute myocardial ischemia: novel modulators of endogenous H(2)S production.
PubMed: S-allyl L-cysteine diminishes cerebral ischemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in hippocampus.
PubMed: Purification and characterization of flavin-containing monooxygenase isoform 3 from rat kidney microsomes.
PubMed: Unusual cystine lyase activity of the enzyme alliinase: direct formation of polysulphides.
PubMed: Anti-amyloidogenic activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine and its activity to destabilize Alzheimer's beta-amyloid fibrils in vitro.
PubMed: Amyloid beta-protein potentiates tunicamycin-induced neuronal death in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.
PubMed: Role of caspase-12 in amyloid beta-peptide-induced toxicity in organotypic hippocampal slices cultured for long periods.
PubMed: Two structures of alliinase from Alliium sativum L.: apo form and ternary complex with aminoacrylate reaction intermediate covalently bound to the PLP cofactor.
PubMed: S-Allyl-L-cysteine attenuates cerebral ischemic injury by scavenging peroxynitrite and inhibiting the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
PubMed: Structure-activity relationship of neuroprotective and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities for allium organosulfur compounds.
PubMed: Dietary S-allyl-L-cysteine reduces mortality with decreased incidence of stroke and behavioral changes in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.
PubMed: Changes in organosulfur compounds in garlic cloves during storage.
PubMed: N-acetylcysteine selectively protects cerebellar granule cells from 4-hydroxynonenal-induced cell death.
PubMed: Comparative study of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal death in rat cultured hippocampal and cerebellar granule neurons.
PubMed: Redox-sensitive proteins are potential targets of garlic-derived mercaptocysteine derivatives.
PubMed: In vitro interactions of water-soluble garlic components with human cytochromes p450.
PubMed: Aged garlic extract and its constituents inhibit platelet aggregation through multiple mechanisms.
PubMed: 1H-15N NMR studies of the complex bis(S-allyl-L-cysteinate)palladium(II).
PubMed: Model studies on precursor system generating blue pigment in onion and garlic.
PubMed: Aminotransferase, L-amino acid oxidase and beta-lyase reactions involving L-cysteine S-conjugates found in allium extracts. Relevance to biological activity?
PubMed: Inhibition of tumor growth by a novel approach: in situ allicin generation using targeted alliinase delivery.
PubMed: S-allyl-L-cysteine selectively protects cultured rat hippocampal neurons from amyloid beta-protein- and tunicamycin-induced neuronal death.
PubMed: Neurotoxicity induced by amyloid beta-peptide and ibotenic acid in organotypic hippocampal cultures: protection by S-allyl-L-cysteine, a garlic compound.
PubMed: Protective effect of S-allyl-L-cysteine, a garlic compound, on amyloid beta-protein-induced cell death in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells.
PubMed: High-performance ion-pair chromatography method for simultaneous analysis of alliin, deoxyalliin, allicin and dipeptide precursors in garlic products using multiple mass spectrometry and UV detection.
PubMed: Sulfoxides as urinary metabolites of S-allyl-L-cysteine in rats: evidence for the involvement of flavin-containing monooxygenases.
PubMed: Biomonitoring the intake of garlic via urinary excretion of allyl mercapturic acid.
PubMed: N alpha-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine, an antioxidant compound identified in aged garlic extract.
PubMed: Methionine S-oxidation in human and rabbit liver microsomes: evidence for a high-affinity methionine S-oxidase activity that is distinct from flavin-containing monooxygenase 3.
PubMed: Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats.
PubMed: Species and sex differences in expression of flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 in liver and kidney microsomes.
PubMed: The mode of action of allicin: trapping of radicals and interaction with thiol containing proteins.
PubMed: Neurotrophic activity of organosulfur compounds having a thioallyl group on cultured rat hippocampal neurons.
PubMed: Cysteine-S-conjugate beta-lyase activity and pyridoxal phosphate binding site of onion alliin lyase.
PubMed: Oxidation of cysteine S-conjugates by rabbit liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed flavin-containing mono-oxygenases: studies with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, S-allyl-L-cysteine, and S-benzyl-L-cysteine.
PubMed: New agents for cancer chemoprevention.
PubMed: Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine upon garlic consumption by human volunteers.
PubMed: On the Isolation and Characterization of a C-S-Lyase Preparation from Leek,Allium porrum.
PubMed: A novel amino acid glycoside and three amino acids from Allium sativum.
PubMed: Interspecific hybrid between Allium cepa and Allium sativum.
PubMed: The acute effects of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and related chemicals on renal function and ultrastructure in the pentobarbital-anesthetized dog: structure-activity relationships, biotransformation, and unique site-specific nephrotoxicity.
PubMed: HPLC of S-Alk(en)yl-L-cysteine Derivatives in Garlic including Quantitative Determination of (+)-S-Allyl-L-cysteine Sulfoxide (Alliin).
PubMed: Studies on the antimutagenic activities of garlic extract.
PubMed: The C-S lyases of higher plants: preparation and properties of homogeneous alliin lyase from garlic (Allium sativum).
PubMed: Biosynthesis of mercapturic acids from allyl alcohol, allyl esters and acrolein.
PubMed: Purification of the alliin lyase of garlic, Allium sativum L.
PubMed: gama-L-Glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine, a new gama-glutamyl peptide in garlic.
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