indole
1-benzo(b)pyrrole
 
Notes:
Constit. of several flower oils, esp. of Jasminum and Citrus spp. (Oleaceae) prod. of bacterial dec. of proteins. Flavouring ingredient. Also present in crispbread, Swiss cheese, Camembert cheese, wine, cocoa, black and green tea, rum, roasted filbert, rice bran, clary sage, raw shrimp and other foodstuffs Indole is a major constituent of coal-tar, and the 220-260 °C distillation fraction is the main industrial source of the material. Indole and its derivatives can also be synthesized by a variety of methods. The main industrial routes start from aniline.; Indole is a solid at room temperature. Indole can be produced by bacteria as a degradation product of the amino acid tryptophan. It occurs naturally in human feces and has an intense fecal odor. At very low concentrations, however, it has a flowery smell, and is a constituent of many flower scents (such as orange blossoms) and perfumes. It also occurs in coal tar.; Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring. Indole is a popular component of fragrances and the precursor to many pharmaceuticals. Compounds that contain an indole ring are called indoles. The most famous derivative is the amino acid tryptophan.; Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring. It can be produced by bacteria as a degradation product of the amino acid tryptophan. It occurs naturally in human feces and has an intense fecal smell. At very low concentrations, however, it has a flowery smell, and is a constituent of many flower scents (such as orange blossoms) and perfumes. Natural jasmine oil, used in the perfume industry, contains around 2.5% of indole. Indole also occurs in coal tar. The participation of the nitrogen lone electron pair in the aromatic ring means that indole is not a base, and it does not behave like a simple amine.; The Leimgruber-Batcho indole synthesis is an efficient method of sythesizing indole and substituted indoles. Originally disclosed in a patent in 1976, this method is high-yielding and can generate substituted indoles. This method is especially popular in the pharmaceutical industry, where many pharmaceutical drugs are made up of specifically substituted indoles.; The name indole is a portmanteau of the words indigo and oleum, since indole was first isolated by treatment of the indigo dye with oleum.
  • ACS International
    • ACS International GmbH
      Creativity Beyond Chemistry
      Production • Distribution • Sourcing • Logistics • Consulting
      Our hybrid business model, combining manufacturing with sourcing and exclusive distribution agreements, results in a superior level of purchasing power that when added to our global warehouse network with locations near all major flavor and fragrance industry compounding centers around the globe, make A.C.S. International your one-stop sourcing partner.
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      Email: Nathalie Pinel
      US Email: Armin Schmidt
      Voice: +49 (0) 55 31 - 99 06-0
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      Operational Capabilities
      Product(s):
      50905 Indole
       
  • Advanced Biotech
  • Alfrebro
  • Augustus Oils
    • Augustus Oils Ltd
      The Premier Supplier
      Augustus Oils Ltd, in harmony with nature - to present it at its best...
      A wealth of experience, expertise and knowledge has allowed Augustus to bridge the gulf in expectation and trust between growers and users of natural ingredients. The Company works in partnership with customers on the one hand, and growers, farmers and distillers on the other. Both users and producers can then focus on exactly what they do best, while skilled Augustus technicians closely monitor and control the delivered product. This ensures users can have the confidence that they will receive the best raw materials suited to their requirements.
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  • Axxence Aromatic
    • Axxence Aromatic GmbH
      We bring nature to your flavour
      Dedicated to provide the best possible quality and supply service of natural aroma ingredients.
      Axxence Aromatic is entirely dedicated to provide the best possible quality and supply service of natural aroma ingredients to the Flavour & Fragrance Industry worldwide.
      Email: Service
      Voice: +49.2822.68561.0
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      Product(s):
      259310 INDOLE Natural Kosher
       
  • Beijing Lys Chemicals
    • Beijing Lys Chemicals Co, LTD.
      From Grams to Tons
      Fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales.
      BEIJING LYS CHEMICALS CO, LTD, established in 2004, is a fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales. We mainly engaged in export and technology development of flavor and fragrance materials and pharmaceutical intermediates. We have nearly 500 kinds of products, from grams to tons, exported to USA, Europe, South Asia and etc. And we custom manufacture new products according to customers’ needs, and serve good quality products and service. Our goal is to become a fine chemical enterprise which could provide special products and services.
      Email: Mr. Jia
      Email: Mr. Guo
      Voice: 86-10-68418738
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      10710 Indole
       
  • Berjé
    • Berje Inc.
      Where the world comes to its senses
      Where the world comes to its senses - Berjé is a global distributor of Essential Oils and Aromatic Chemicals.
      Berjé is a family-owned business that has been in operation for six decades. The company's origins and strength lie in a profound understanding of the supply and the quality of the diverse raw materials consumed by the flavor and fragrance industries. This base was expanded upon more than two decades ago to include fragrance production. The company's unparalleled raw material expertise is focused on the supply of essential oils and aromatic chemicals. This is supported by our long-standing relationships with a worldwide fabric of producers ensuring the greatest prospects for uninterrupted supply in markets that are often volatile and unpredictable.
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      Product(s):
      Indole Crystals
       
  • BOC Sciences
    • BOC Sciences
      Best of Chemicals Supplier
      Quality supplier of research chemicals and biochemicals including inhibitors, building blocks, GMP Products, impurities and metabolites, APIs for Veterinary, Natural Compounds, ADCs, Stem Cell Molecule and chiral compounds.
      BOC Sciences provides a wide range of services to support the pharmaceutical industry through all stages of drug discovery including Custom Synthesis of those chemicals that are not in stock, Isotope Labeling Service, Chiral Synthesis and Resolution, Bioconjugation, PEGylation services, analytical services.
      BOC Sciences is a brand of BOCSCI Inc. We leverage our wide spectrum of business in the fields of development, manufacturing, marketing, and distribution to help you make best-informed decisions tailored to your evolving needs for premium chemicals. Our complete suite of CRO services spans the entire molecule development pipeline including contract research for target identification, building blocks, compound synthesis, biochemical and cellular analysis, preclinical animal tests, and clinical studies.
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      120-72-9 Indole 95%
       
  • ECSA Chemicals
    • ECSA Chemicals
      International trading and distribution
      ECSA Group offers its customers in these business segments a complete 'one-stop shopping' solution.
      A hundred years on from its establishment, the Emanuele Centonze Holding SA has developed a solid presence in Switzerland and in Europe. The Group currently includes: ECSA Chemicals AG/ECSA Italia SRL Società con Unico Socio – ECSA Maintenance AG – ECSA Energy SA – Porta Ticino Easy Stop SA.
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      Indole
       
  • Excellentia International
    • Excellentia International
      Ingredients by Nature
      Exceptional quality and excellence in meeting our customers requirements.
      Excellentia International was founded in 2010 through the merger of Excellentia Flavors LLC and Polarome International. Collectively, these companies account for more than one hundred years of industry experience, and are recognized for exceptional quality and excellence in meeting our customers’ requirements.
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      Voice: 732.749.9840
      Our Services
      Product(s):
      Indole Natural
       
  • Global Essence
    • Global Essence Inc.
      Preferred Partner
      Accommodate each customers unique needs.
      Global Essence was founded in 1993 as a two person operation servicing regional customers in the New York/ New Jersey area. In the twenty years since, it has grown into a multinational operation with offices in the US, UK, and Singapore. These offices allow Global to provide regional support to its customers worldwide. As the world continues become more connected, this approach positions Global to continue to offer the highest quality products and experience to all of its customers.
      Email: Info
      US Email: Info
      Voice: +44 (0) 1279 876666
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  • Hermitage Oils
    • Hermitage Oils / Neroli S.R.L.
      Perfumery and Aromatherapy materials since 1979
      Hermitage Oils, the true home of essential oils!
      Hermitage Oils offers a selection of Absolutes, Essential Oils, Natural Isolates, Aroma Chemicals, CO2 Extracts, Ethanol Tinctures, and Extraits by Enfleurage.
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      Product(s):
      Indole 1% Natural Isolate
      Eleonora Scalseggi has this to say “Often called “magic” indole is indeed a very fascinating material whose importance in perfumery cannot be overstated. Depending on its concentration it can be terribly repulsive or immensely seductive, featuring in the aroma profile of some of the most bewitching floral scents on earth like jasmines and orange blossoms as well as in excrements. Indole is the seductive weapon devised by the most intoxicating night flowers to attract pollinators – usually moths. Funnily enough traces of indole in the aroma profile of a flower make it irresistible for humans too, capable of transforming a delicate, clean yet insignificant floral scent into a narcotic elixir.
       
       
  • Indukern F&F
  • Lluch Essence
    • Lluch Essence S.L.
      A family company dedicated to sales and distribution
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality.
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality make LLUCH ESSENCE S.L. one of Europe’s references when it comes to essential oils and aroma chemicals, and it is now well known all around the world.
      Email: Info
      Voice: 34 93 379 38 49
      Fax: 34 93 370 65 04
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      Product(s):
      INDOLE CRYST.
      INDOLE NATURAL
       
  • M&U International
    • M&U International LLC
      Steady supply & demand
      Meeting customers increasing demands at home as well as abroad.
      M&U dedicates itself to the development and production of new products as well as continuously promoting those new products. We’ve maintained a steady supply&demand relationship with a large number of manufacturers at home and abroad. We’ve developed an extensive network and because of our relationships with these manufacturers, we’re able to provide a stable supply of great quality materials. We’re located in China’s largest communications hub, Shanghai and in the U.S. near one of the largest sea ports on the East Coast. The strategic locations of our facilities ensure convenient, prompt and secure delivery of our products to our customers.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Voice: +86-21-32515501 60762991 60762992
      Fax: +86-21-32515502 64204960
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      Product(s):
      A0429 INDOLE
       
  • Moellhausen
  • Natural Advantage
  • O'Laughlin Industries
    • O'Laughlin Industries Inc.
      Manufacturer of chemicals and ingredients used in flavors, fragrances, food, beverages and cosmetics
      Leading the Flavor and Fragrance Industry since 1980.
      O'Laughlin was established in 1980 by its owner and chief executive Michael O'Laughlin, when he moved to Beijing, China and established a small office. Since then it has grown to be a world class producer of chemicals, with significant production facilities in China, and distribution and sales in all major world markets.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: John Gick
      Voice: (852) 2527-1031
      Fax: (852) 2529-0231
      US Voice: (973) 376-4600
      US Fax: (973) 376-4630
      Product(s):
      772-3027 INDOLE
       
  • Pell Wall Perfumes
    • Pell Wall Perfumes
      Hand-made fragrances
      Pell Wall maintains a broad palette of ingredients & in order to keep stocks fresh & the options wide we also sell from our own stock.
      Pell Wall was founded by perfumer Chris Bartlett to provide exclusive hand-made fragrances to a select few people who love them. All our products are created using fine quality ingredients, many of which we also offer for sale to other perfumers and enthusiasts. Pell Wall make fragrances for men, for women and for the home.
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      Indole
      Arctander writes extensively about this material; here are a couple of extracts: “Extremely diffusive and powerful odor, almost tarry-repulsive and choking when concentrated, but in concentrations lower than 0.1%. or in compositions, it shows powerful floral notes and pleasant radiation. Good tenacity, in spite of the volatility at room temperature.”
       
       
  • Penta International
  • PerfumersWorld
    • PerfumersWorld Ltd.
      feeeel... the smell!
      The one-stop resource for the creative perfumer.
      No minimum orders. Aroma chemicals, essential oils, isolates, pheremones, absolutes, resinoids, FleuressenceTM key bases, PWx FactorTM, solubilizers, kits, creation systems, workshops, training, distance learning, The PerfumersWorld Perfumer's Studio, The Perfumer’s Formulation Bulletin, perfumery software, bespoke creation, analysis, consultancy, project counselling, trouble-shooting, unperfumed product bases, bottles, smelling strips, scales, distillation, equipment and inspiration!
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      Product(s):
      9UN00235 Indole
      Blends-well-with - +Phenyl Acetic Acid +Mimosa
       
      5UN07558 Indole 10% in DPG
       
  • Prodasynth
    • Prodasynth
      PRODUCTEUR PAR ESSENCE
      Chemical specialist in manufacturing, distributing and sourcing of tailor-made ingredients for the Flavour & Fragrance industry.
      Today we are also proud to say, we have created an important range of Natural Molecules which can be found in our Raw Material Compendium. The versatility of our small but efficient structure is one of our main strengths when trying to fulfill our clients' requirements.
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      Email: Karine Cohen
      Voice: (33) 4 93 09 00 11
      Fax: (33) 4 22 13 07 38
      New Catalog
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      Product(s):
      INDOLE (> 99%)
       
  • Sigma-Aldrich
  • TCI AMERICA
    • TCI AMERICA
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      With East & West Coast distribution centers, count on TCI to deliver products quickly and reliably. Over 28,000 Reagents available today in benchtop to bulk quantities. Sign up for a TCI account today for fast and free shipping!
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 28,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI has established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
      US Email: Sales
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      Voice: 1-800-423-8616
      Fax: 1- 888-520-1075
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      Product(s):
      I0021 Indole >99.0%(GC)
       
  • The John D. Walsh Company
    • The John D. Walsh Company, Inc
      Suppliers Since 1942
      Supplying the fragrance and flavor industry with high quality products.
      The John D. Walsh Company, Inc. has evolved from its beginnings as an agent/broker into a distributor of essential oils, aroma chemicals, concretes and absolutes. We currently represent the following companies, as their North American distributor: Destilerias Munoz Galvez, S.A. International Flavors & Fragrances PFW Aroma Chemicals B.V. Innospec Widnes Limited Hydrodiffusion de Guatemala, S. A. DSM Nutritional Products The John D. Walsh Company, Inc. is proud to be a founding member of IFEAT, an active member of IFRA, North America, and a corporate sponsor of the WFFC.
      Email: Information
      Email: Sales
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      Voice: 973-962-1400
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      Firmenich Flavor Phone:973-962-1888
      Firmenich Flavor Fax:973-962-1898
      History
      Product(s):
      Indole
      SDS
       
  • The Lermond Company
    • The Lermond Company
      Your Sourcing Resource
      The Lermond family has been sourcing raw materials for the flavor and fragrance industry for nearly 7 decades.
      The Lermond Company is a women-owned distributor of raw materials primarily servicing the flavor and fragrance industry. For three generations, members of the Lermond family have been integral sourcing partners for the North American flavor and fragrance industry. We supply high quality essential oils, aroma chemicals, absolutes, concretes, resinoids and floral waters from around the world to the global industry.
      Email: Info
      Email: Tara
      Email: Erica
      Voice: 201-896-3300
      Fax: 201-623-2910
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      Product(s):
      30007 INDOLE
       
  • Ernesto Ventós
  • Vigon International
    • Vigon International, Inc.
      Passion for Simplicity
      Manufacturer and supplier of high quality flavor and fragrance ingredients.
      The growth and success of Vigon is due in large part to a unique corporate concept that Vigon has developed and established within the industry: Creative Partnerships. This partnership concept has been and continues to be the foundation and guiding principle for all of Vigon's activities.
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 570-476-6300
      US Fax: 570-476-1110
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      Product(s):
      500788 Indole
       
  • Zanos
    • Zanos
      Premier source for aromas chemicals and essential oils
      Sourcing and supplying quality aroma chemicals and prestige natural ingredients for the flavour and fragrance industry.
      The flavour and fragrance industry's premier source for aroma chemicals and essential oils
      Following a corporate career spanning almost 20 years with Bush Boake Allen, Henkel, Bunzl and Amersham International, Zanos was formed by Julian Sarkar in 2000 to bring together best knowledge, contact networks and experience of the flavour and fragrance and speciality chemicals markets.
      Email: Contact Zanos
      Email: Lisa Senior
      Voice: +44 (0) 1565 755899
      Fax: +44 (0) 1565 755799
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      Product(s):
      Indole
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
Fragrance Demo Formulas    Flavor Demo Formulas
CAS Number: 120-72-9Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 204-420-7
FDA UNII: 8724FJW4M5
Nikkaji Web: J2.920C
Beilstein Number: 0107693
MDL: MFCD00005607
CoE Number: 560
XlogP3: 2.10 (est)
Molecular Weight: 117.15079000
Formula: C8 H7 N
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
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US Patents: Search
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NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1301  indole
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 14.007  indole
FEMA Number: 2593 indole
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):120-72-9 ; INDOLE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: white to amber yellow crystalline solid powder (est)
Assay: 97.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 51.00 to  54.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 253.00 to  254.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Congealing Point: 51.10 °C.
Vapor Pressure: 0.012200 mmHg @ 25.00 °C.
Flash Point: > 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 2.140
Shelf Life: 36.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 fixed oils
 propylene glycol
 water, 3560 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 glycerin
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
 
Odor Type: animal
 
Odor Strength: high ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
 
Substantivity: 400 hour(s) at 50.00 % in dipropylene glycol
 
 animal  floral  naphthyl  fecal  
Odor Description:
at 1.00 % in dipropylene glycol. 
animal floral moth ball fecal naphthelene
Luebke, William tgsc, (1982)
 
 pungent  floral  naphthyl  fecal  animal  musty  
Odor Description:
at 1.00 %.  
Pungent, floral, slightly naphtha and mothball like with a fecal and animalic musty character
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 26, No. 3, 80, (2001)
 
 
Flavor Type: animal
 
 animal  fecal  naphthyl  earthy  phenolic  chemical  
Taste Description:
at 0.30 - 2.00 ppm. 
Animal, fecal, naphthyl, with earthy, perfumey, phenolic and chemical nuances
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 26, No. 3, 80, (2001)
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Alfrebro
INDOLE (EU NAT)
Odor Description: Floral on high dilution
 
Moellhausen
INDOLE
Odor Description: penetrating, animal, faecal
Taste Description: musky, faecal, cheese
 
PerfumersWorld
Indole
Odor Description: strong moth ball naphthelene erogenic-floral animal narcotic-floral jasmine slightly musk fecal
Blends-well-with - +Phenyl Acetic Acid +Mimosa
 
Pell Wall Perfumes
Indole
Odor Description: Animalic, floral-heady, faecal, naphthelene / moth-balls
Arctander writes extensively about this material; here are a couple of extracts: “Extremely diffusive and powerful odor, almost tarry-repulsive and choking when concentrated, but in concentrations lower than 0.1%. or in compositions, it shows powerful floral notes and pleasant radiation. Good tenacity, in spite of the volatility at room temperature.”
 
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
ACS International
Indole
Odor: animal fecal earthy musty
Operational Capabilities
Advanced Biotech
INDOLE 0.6% IN ETOH NATURAL
Advanced Biotech
INDOLE 1% IN ETOH NATURAL
Advanced Biotech
INDOLE 1% IN PG NATURAL
Advanced Biotech
INDOLE NATURAL
97% min.
Alfrebro
INDOLE (EU NAT)
Odor: Floral on high dilution
Alfrebro
INDOLE (EU NAT)
Odor: Floral on high dilution
Alfrebro
INDOLE NATURAL 1% IN ETHANOL
Odor: Floral on high dilution
Anhui Haibei
Indole
Augustus Oils
Indole
Services
Axxence Aromatic
INDOLE Natural
Kosher
Sustainability
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Indole
Berjé
Indole Crystals
Happening at Berje
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Indole 95%
BST Tianjin Co.
Indole
Creatingperfume.com
Indole
Diffusions Aromatiques
INDOLE
ECSA Chemicals
Indole
Company Profile
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Indole
Ernesto Ventós
INDOLE
Odor: FECAL IF CONC., FLORAL IF DILUTED
Excellentia International
Indole Natural
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
Indole
Global Essence
Indole
Hermitage Oils
Indole 1% Natural Isolate
Odor: characteristic
Use: Eleonora Scalseggi has this to say “Often called “magic” indole is indeed a very fascinating material whose importance in perfumery cannot be overstated. Depending on its concentration it can be terribly repulsive or immensely seductive, featuring in the aroma profile of some of the most bewitching floral scents on earth like jasmines and orange blossoms as well as in excrements. Indole is the seductive weapon devised by the most intoxicating night flowers to attract pollinators – usually moths. Funnily enough traces of indole in the aroma profile of a flower make it irresistible for humans too, capable of transforming a delicate, clean yet insignificant floral scent into a narcotic elixir.
Indenta Group
Indole
Indukern F&F
INDOL CRYST.
Odor: ANIMAL, FLORAL
K.L. Koh Enterprise
INDOLE
Kunshan Sainty
Indole, Kosher
Lluch Essence
INDOLE CRYST.
Lluch Essence
INDOLE NATURAL
M&U International
INDOLE
Moellhausen
INDOLE 10%DPG
Moellhausen
INDOLE
Odor: penetrating, animal, faecal
Flavor: musky, faecal, cheese
Natural Advantage
Indole Nat, 10% in OH
Flavor: creamy, floral, sweet
Riverside Aromatics LTD.is the exclusive distributor for Europe in UK for any non-US based inquiries
O'Laughlin Industries
INDOLE
Pell Wall Perfumes
Indole
Odor: Animalic, floral-heady, faecal, naphthelene / moth-balls
Use: Arctander writes extensively about this material; here are a couple of extracts: “Extremely diffusive and powerful odor, almost tarry-repulsive and choking when concentrated, but in concentrations lower than 0.1%. or in compositions, it shows powerful floral notes and pleasant radiation. Good tenacity, in spite of the volatility at room temperature.”
Penta International
INDOLE FCC GRADE
Penta International
INDOLE NATURAL (NEAT)
Penta International
INDOLE NATURAL IN ETHYL ALCOHOL
Penta International
INDOLE
PerfumersWorld
Indole 10% in DPG
PerfumersWorld
Indole
Odor: strong moth ball naphthelene erogenic-floral animal narcotic-floral jasmine slightly musk fecal
Use: Blends-well-with - +Phenyl Acetic Acid +Mimosa
Prodasynth
INDOLE
(> 99%)
Odor: FECAL IF CONC., FLORAL IF DILUTED
Reincke & Fichtner
Indole
Sigma-Aldrich
Indole, ≥99%, FG
Odor: butter; cheese; chocolate; grape; honey; jasmine; musty; floral; fatty; vanilla; animal; earthy; vegetable; wine-like; fishy
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
Indole, natural, ≥97%, FG
Odor: floral; pungent; animalic
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Indole >99.0%(GC)
The John D. Walsh Company
Indole
The Lermond Company
INDOLE
Vigon International
Indole
Odor: UNPLEASANT ODOR IN HIGH CONCENTRATIONS, BUT FLORAL IN HIGHER DILUTIONS
Zanos
Indole
Odor: Powerful and harsh odour, with a-jasmine character on dilution
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn N - Harmful, Dangerous for the environment.
R 21/22 - Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 37/38 - Irritating to respiratory system and skin.
R 41 - Risk of serious damage to eyes.
R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S 60 - This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Acute toxicity, Oral (Category 4), H302
Skin irritation (Category 2), H315
Serious eye damage (Category 1), H318
Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure (Category 3), Respiratory system, H335
Acute aquatic toxicity (Category 1), H400
Chronic aquatic toxicity (Category 1), H410
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramcorrosion.jpgskull.jpgenvironment.jpg
 
Signal word Danger
Hazard statement(s)
H302 - Harmful if swallowed
H311 - Toxic in contact with skin
H315 - Causes skin irritation
H318 - Causes serious eye damage
H335 - May cause respiratory irritation
H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life
H410 - Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
Precautionary statement(s)
P261 - Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 - Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271 - Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P273 - Avoid release to the environment.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P301 + P312 - IF SWALLOWED: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician IF you feel unwell.
P302 + P352 - IF ON SKIN: wash with plenty of soap and water.
P304 + P340 - IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P305 + P351 + P338 - IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P310 - Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P330 - Rinse mouth.
P332 + P313 - IF SKIN irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P361 - Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
P391 - Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P403 + P233 - Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P405 - Store locked up.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Human Experience:
1 % solution: non-sensitising.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  [sex: M] 1000 mg/kg
(Smyth et al., 1962)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  117 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 94, Pg. 1620, 1974.

oral-mouse LDLo  1070 mg/kg
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 111, 1985.

oral-rat LD50  1000 mg/kg
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 23, Pg. 95, 1962.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 790 mg/kg
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 23, Pg. 95, 1962.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 225 mg/kg
Klinische Wochenscrift. Vol. 35, Pg. 504, 1957.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Code of Practice Notification of the 49th Amendment to the IFRA Code of Practice
Recommendation for indole usage levels up to:
  2.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 26.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 10.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -0.58000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -0.26000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -0.28000
fruit ices: -0.28000
gelatins / puddings: 0.020000.40000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -0.50000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 24 (FGE.24): Pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives from chemical group 28 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf
Pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives from chemical group 28 Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 1 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 77 (FGE77) [1] - Consideration of Pyridine, Pyrrole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to Pyridine, Pyrrole, Indole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 77, Revision 2 (FGE.77Rev2): Consideration of Pyridine, Pyrrole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to Pyridine, Pyrrole, Indole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev2 (2013)
View page or View pdf
Safety and efficacy of pyridine and pyrrole derivatives belonging to chemical group 28 when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Scientific opinion on flavouring group evaluation 77, revision 3 (FGE.77Rev3): consideration of pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev2
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 120-72-9
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 798
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WISER: UN 2811
WGK Germany: 1
 1H-indole
Chemidplus: 0000120729
RTECS: NL2450000 for cas# 120-72-9
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
References:
 1H-indole
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 120-72-9
Pubchem (cid): 798
Pubchem (sid): 134975207
Flavornet: 120-72-9
Pherobase: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00463
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00738
FooDB: FDB012008
Export Tariff Code: 2933.90.0500
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
Formulations/Preparations:
•found in neroli oil in trace quantities approx 0.1% •constitutes 2.5% of jasmine oil •technical, cp, fcc
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
aldehydic
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
 nonanal (aldehyde C-9)FL/FR
10-undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)FL/FR
amber
 ambroxanFL/FR
 cistus ladaniferus resinoidFL/FR
animal
 animal carbolactoneFR
isobutyl quinolineFR
 civet (natural)FL/FR
 civet absoluteFL/FR
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
para-cresyl isobutyrateFL/FR
para-cresyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 ethyl 4-methyl salicylateFL/FR
 indocolore (Firmenich)FR
 indolallFR
 skatoleFL/FR
anisic
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
balsamic
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 benzyl benzoateFL/FR
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
isobutyl cinnamateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 clover nitrileFR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 fir balsam absoluteFR
 methyl (E)-cinnamateFL/FR
 myrrh oilFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
berry
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
ethereal
 propylene glycol dibenzoateCS
fatty
 coconut absoluteFL/FR
 decanolFL/FR
floral
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 benzyl alcoholFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 citronellolFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
para-cresyl acetateFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 cyclohexyl ethyl alcoholFL/FR
9-decen-1-olFL/FR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 floral pyranolFR
 geraniolFL/FR
 geranyl acetateFL/FR
 heliotropinFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hyacinth etherFR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
 jasmin absolute (from chassis)FL/FR
 leerallFR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 linaloolFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
para-methyl acetophenoneFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
beta-naphthyl methyl ketoneFL/FR
 nerolFL/FR
 nerolidolFL/FR
 neryl acetateFL/FR
 nonanolFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
bitter orangeflower absolute moroccoFL/FR
 orris pyridine 25% IPMFR
 peony alcoholFR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
 rhodinolFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
fresh
10-undecen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
fruity
(E)-beta-damasconeFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
green
para-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-phenyl propionaldehydeFL/FR
hay
 hay absoluteFR
herbal
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
honey
 methyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenyl acetic acidFL/FR
marine
 marine pyridineFR
mossy
 oakmoss absoluteFL/FR
 veramoss (IFF)FR
musk
(Z)-civet decenoneFL/FR
 musk nonaneFR
naphthyl
beta-naphthyl ethyl etherFL/FR
beta-naphthyl methyl etherFL/FR
powdery
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 powdery animal fragranceFR
spicy
 benzyl isoeugenolFL/FR
 carnation absoluteFR
 methyl isoeugenolFL/FR
terpenic
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
tonka
 coumarinFR
 tonka bean absoluteFR
vanilla
ortho-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
waxy
 ethyl laurateFL/FR
woody
 amber carbinolFR
 guaiacwood oilFL/FR
 gurjun balsam oilFR
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 santallFR
 tobacarol (IFF)FR
 vetiver oil haitiFL/FR
 woody acetateFR
(Z)-woody amyleneFR
 woody propanolFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
 cistus ladaniferus resinoidFL/FR
ortho-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
 ethyl 4-methyl salicylateFL/FR
 methyl (E)-cinnamateFL/FR
 skatoleFL/FR
aldehydic
 nonanal (aldehyde C-9)FL/FR
animal
 civet (natural)FL/FR
 civet absoluteFL/FR
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
aromatic
para-cresyl acetateFL/FR
para-cresyl isobutyrateFL/FR
balsamic
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 benzyl benzoateFL/FR
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
isobutyl cinnamateFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 myrrh oilFL/FR
berry
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
cherry
 heliotropinFL/FR
citrus
 linaloolFL/FR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 nerolFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
creamy
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
para-methyl acetophenoneFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
fatty
 coconut absoluteFL/FR
10-undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)FL/FR
floral
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 citronellolFL/FR
 geraniolFL/FR
 jasmin absolute (from chassis)FL/FR
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
 methyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
beta-naphthyl methyl ketoneFL/FR
 neryl acetateFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
bitter orangeflower absolute moroccoFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenyl acetic acidFL/FR
 rhodinolFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
fruity
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 benzyl alcoholFL/FR
(E)-beta-damasconeFL/FR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
greasy
10-undecen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
green
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 cyclohexyl ethyl alcoholFL/FR
para-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 geranyl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 nerolidolFL/FR
 oakmoss absoluteFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-phenyl propionaldehydeFL/FR
herbal
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
honey
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
medicinal
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
musk
(Z)-civet decenoneFL/FR
naphthyl
beta-naphthyl methyl etherFL/FR
orris
 costus root oilFL
phenolic
para-cresyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
powdery
beta-naphthyl ethyl etherFL/FR
soapy
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
spicy
 benzyl isoeugenolFL/FR
 methyl isoeugenolFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
tropical
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
waxy
 decanolFL/FR
9-decen-1-olFL/FR
 ethyl laurateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
 nonanolFL/FR
woody
 ambroxanFL/FR
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
 guaiacwood oilFL/FR
 vetiver oil haitiFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 acaciaFR
 carnationFR
 chocolate cocoaFL
 cinq fleurs forvil 
 citrusFR
 civetFR
 coffeeFR
 crabapple blossomFR
 eggFL
 floralFR
 gardeniaFR
 grape concord grapeFR
 honeyFR
 honeysuckleFR
 jasminFR
 jonquilFR
 lilacFR
 lily of the valleyFR
 lotusFR
 lumiere 
 lux beauty shower soap 
 mimosaFR
 narcissusFR
 neroliFR
 oliveFL
 orange bitter orange peelFL/FR
 orange blossomFR
 orchidFR
 orientalFR
 roseFR
 tobaccoFR
 tuberoseFR
 vanillaFR
 violetFR
 vol de nuit 
 wallflowerFR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 bergamot oil @ 0.000-0.009%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 bergamot oil @ trace%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 bonito dried bonito
Search  PMC Picture
 butter
Search  PMC Picture
 champaca absolute @ 2.90%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 champaca concrete @ 4.00%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 coffee roasted coffee
Search  PMC Picture
 corn shoot
Search Trop  Picture
 couroupita guianensis aubl. flower oil brazil @ 0.20%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 egg
Search  PMC Picture
 elder black elder leaf oil
Search Trop  Picture
 fig fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 fish
Search  PMC Picture
 hyacinthus orientalis absolute @ 0.05-0.08%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 jasmin
Search  PMC Picture
 jasmin absolute concrete egypt @ 3.84%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 jasmin absolute concrete india @ 1.07-1.85%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 jasmin absolute concrete italy @ 1.39%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 jasmin oil italy @ 4.21%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 jonquil
Search Trop  Picture
 kohlrabi stem
Search Trop  Picture
 lecythis usitata miers. var. paraensis (ducke) r. kunth. flower oil brazil @ 0.40%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 lemon
Search Trop  Picture
 lime
Search Trop  Picture
 malt
Search  PMC Picture
 mandarin
Search Trop  Picture
 michelia alba flower absolute @ 0.02%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 michelia champaca flower absolute @ 7.20%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 mikan peel oil @ trace%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 mustard white mustard
Search Trop  Picture
 narcissus absolute @ 1.51%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 narcissus absolute @ 6.30%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 neroli
Search  PMC Picture
 neroli oil CO2 extract @ 0.45%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 olive oil
Search Trop  Picture
 orangeflower absolute morocco @ 2.6-9.9%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 orangeflower water absolute @ 0.0-3.2%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 petitgrain combava oil @ trace%
Data  GC  Search  Picture
 rice black rice cooked
PbMd  Search  PMC Picture
 robinia pseudacacia
Search Trop  Picture
 rum
Search  PMC Picture
 tea leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 thyme oil wild or creeping france @ 0.09%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 tobacco burley tobacco
Search  Picture
 wallflower
Search  Picture
 wine
Search  Picture
 ylang ylang oil CO2 extract @ 0.13%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 azaindole
 benzazole
1-benzazole
1-benzo(b)pyrrole
 benzo[b]pyrrole
1-benzol(b)pyrrol
 benzopyrrole
2,3-benzopyrrole
1-azaindene
 indol cryst.
1H-indole
 indole 0.6% in ETOH natural
 indole 1% in ETOH natural
 indole 1% in PG natural
 indole crystals
 indole FCC
 indole natural
 ketole
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Analysis of organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu using SPME with different fiber coatings.
PubMed: In vitro assessment of the effectiveness of non-nutritive sorbent materials as binding agents for boar taint compounds.
PubMed: Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors.
PubMed: Characteristic volatile components of Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka).
PubMed: Identification of odorous compounds in reclaimed water using FPA combined with sensory GC-MS.
PubMed: Ewe's diet (pasture vs grain-based feed) affects volatile profile of cooked meat from light lamb.
PubMed: Volatile compounds with characteristic odour in moso-bamboo stems (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex Houz. De ehaie).
PubMed: Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate.
PubMed: Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.
PubMed: Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in cooked black rice.
PubMed: Analysis of volatile compounds in fresh healthy and diseased peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) using solvent free solid injection coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and confirmation with mass spectrometry.
PubMed: [Identification of volatile organic compounds in the manures of cow, hog and chicken by solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].
PubMed: Production and engineering of terpenoids in plant cell culture.
PubMed: New insight into the biosynthesis and regulation of indole compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed: Identification, cloning, and characterization of a Lactococcus lactis branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase involved in flavor formation.
PubMed: Sensory evaluation of the synergism among odorants present in concentrations below their odor threshold in a Chinese jasmine green tea infusion.
PubMed: Analysis of alpha- and beta-carbolines in mainstream smoke of reference cigarettes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: The effect of age on distribution of skatole and indole levels in entire male pigs in four breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc.
PubMed: Acetyltransfer in natural product biosynthesis--functional cloning and molecular analysis of vinorine synthase.
PubMed: Characteristic aroma components of rennet casein.
PubMed: "Untypical aging off-flavor" in wine: synthesis of potential degradation compounds of indole-3-acetic acid and kynurenine and their evaluation as precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone.
PubMed: Determination of free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, tryptophan, and tryptophan metabolites in grape must and wine.
PubMed: Cytochrome P450 CYP79B2 from Arabidopsis catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime, a precursor of indole glucosinolates and indole-3-acetic acid.
PubMed: Determination of tryptophan and tryptophan metabolites in grape must and wine.
PubMed: Off-flavor compounds in wine and other food products formed by enzymatical, physical, and chemical degradation of tryptophan and its metabolites.
PubMed: Identification of potent odorants in Japanese green tea (Sen-cha).
PubMed: Applications of High-Temperature Aqueous Media for Synthetic Organic Reactions.
PubMed: Interspecific hybrid between Allium cepa and Allium sativum.
PubMed: [Fundamental and clinical studies on cefadroxil dry syrup in children (author's transl)].
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