biphenyl
diphenyl
 
Notes:
Fungistat, esp. for citrus fruits. Used as food preservative and flavouring agent. Detected in bilberry, wine grape, carrot, peas, rum, potato, bell pepper, tomato, butter, milk, smoked fatty fish, cocoa, coffee, roast peanuts, olive, buckwheat and tamarind. Generally, the fruit packaging is impregnated with biphenyl, which evaporates into the air space surrounding the fruit. Some biphenyl is absorbed by the fruit skins
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      02-31200 BIPHENYL
       
  • Sigma-Aldrich
  • Synerzine
    • Synerzine, Inc.
      Innovation. Customization. Aroma Ingredients.
      Synerzine is a leading supplier of flavor and fragrance ingredients.
      Synerzine expresses what we have grown to embody as an organization - the synergy and connection between raw ingredients, science, technology, and the final product. Our experienced team is passionate about bringing our customers high-quality innovative ingredients that they can trust.
      Building upon our 44 year history, the Synerzine team provides customers around the globe with convenient access to over 1200 high-quality aroma ingredients. We actively engage with customers to add a wide array of new products and services on a regular basis. Our aim is to delight every customer with our exceptional services, large product selection, customization and the highest quality and safety standards. We provide our customers with true value designed to help them bring their products to market faster.
      US Email: Customer Service
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (404) 524-6744
      US Fax: (404) 577-1651
      Inquiry
      Products List: View
      Product(s):
      W2216 Biphenyl
       
  • TCI AMERICA
    • TCI AMERICA
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      With East & West Coast distribution centers, count on TCI to deliver products quickly and reliably. Over 28,000 Reagents available today in benchtop to bulk quantities. Sign up for a TCI account today for fast and free shipping!
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 28,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI has established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
      US Email: Sales
      Email: Technical Support
      Voice: 1-800-423-8616
      Fax: 1- 888-520-1075
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      Product(s):
      B0465 Biphenyl >99.5%(GC)
       
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CAS Number: 92-52-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other: 56481-93-7
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 202-163-5
FDA UNII: 2L9GJK6MGN
Nikkaji Web: J3.929B
Beilstein Number: 1634058
MDL: MFCD00003054
CoE Number: 10978
XlogP3: 4.00 (est)
Molecular Weight: 154.21170000
Formula: C12 H10
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments: No longer supported by Industry (DG SANCO, 2012).
Category: antioxidants and stabilizers
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
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NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1332  biphenyl
JECFA Food Additive: Diphenyl
GSFA Codex: Diphenyl (230)
FLAVIS Number: 01.013 (Old)
FEMA Number: 3129  diphenyl
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):92-52-4 ; BIPHENYL
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart C--Antioxidants and Stabilizers
Sec. 178.2010 Antioxidants and/or stabilizers for polymers.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white to pale amber yellow crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 0.99200 @  25.00 °C.
Refractive Index: 1.47500 @  20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 69.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 256.10 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 160.00 to  161.00 °C. @ 50.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.008930 mmHg @ 25.00 °C.
Vapor Density: 5.31 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: > 212.00 °F. TCC ( > 100.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.980
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 benzene
 carbon disulfide
 carbon tetrachloride
 ether
 methanol
 water, 6.94 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
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Organoleptic Properties:
 
Odor Type: green
 
Odor Strength: high ,
recommend smelling in a 0.10 % solution or less
 
 pungent  rose  green  geranium  
Odor Description:
at 0.10 % in propylene glycol. 
pungent rose green geranium
 
 
Flavor Type: floral
 
 neroli  bergamot  cinnamon  natural  
Taste Description:
neroli bergamot cinnamon natural
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
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Cosmetic Information:
None found
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Suppliers:
Eastman Chemical
Biphenyl
Odor: characteristic
Use: Applications for biphenyl process fluid include process media or solvents in many industries, including chemicals and petrochemicals
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Biphenyl
Penta International
BIPHENYL
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Biphenyl
Sigma-Aldrich
Biphenyl, ≥99%
Odor: geranium; green
Certified Food Grade Products
Synerzine
Biphenyl
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Biphenyl >99.5%(GC)
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi N - Irritant, Dangerous for the environment.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 23 - Do not breath vapour.
S 60 - This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  2140 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: ALTERATION IN GASTRIC SECRETION BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0546109

oral-rabbit LD50  2400 mg/kg
Nagoya Shiritsu Daigaku Igakkai Zasshi. Journal of the Nagoya City University Medical Association. Vol. 28, Pg. 983, 1977.

oral-mouse LD50  1900 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Food Hygiene Journal. Vol. 24, Pg. 268, 1983.

intravenous-mouse LD50  56 mg/kg
U.S. Army Armament Research & Development Command, Chemical Systems Laboratory, NIOSH Exchange Chemicals. Vol. NX#00198

oral-cat LD50  > 2600 mg/kg
"Agrochemicals Handbook," with updates, Hartley, D., and H. Kidd, eds., Nottingham, Royal Soc of Chemistry, 1983-86Vol. A166, Pg. 1983

unreported-rat LD50  4500 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 53(5), Pg. 6, 1988.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5010 mg/kg
Monsanto Co. Toxicity Information.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-rat LC50 > 200 mg/m3
Monsanto Co. Toxicity Information.

inhalation-human TCLo 4400 ug/m3
GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: FLACCID PARALYSIS WITHOUT ANESTHESIA (USUALLY NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKAGE)
Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 26, Pg. 70, 1973.

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Safety in Use Information:
Category: antioxidants and stabilizers
Recommendation for biphenyl usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.00085 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.70 (μg/capita/day)
Threshold of Concern:90 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: III
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 4
Click here to view publication 4
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -2.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -2.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -2.00000
fruit ices: -2.00000
gelatins / puddings: -2.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -2.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 78 (FGE.78)[1] - Consideration of Aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives,Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 1 (FGE.78Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev2
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 2 (FGE.78Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev3
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
EPA-Iris: IRIS
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NIOSH Pocket Guide: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 92-52-4
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 7095
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WISER: UN 3077
WGK Germany: 2
 1,1'-biphenyl
Chemidplus: 0000092524
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 92-52-4
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References:
 1,1'-biphenyl
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 92-52-4
Pubchem (cid): 7095
Pubchem (sid): 134972195
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS): View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Metabolomics Database: Search
UM BBD: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C06588
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB34437
FooDB: FDB012838
Export Tariff Code: 2902.90.6000
Haz-Map: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Formulations/Preparations:
•phph •xenene •lemonene •phenador-x •carolid al •bulk molten or flaked, technical grades (99.9% purity). monsanto co •95% and 99% molten or flake grades. sybron chemicals, inc •technical grade of 93-97% purity. high purity is greater than or equal to 99.9% purity.
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
alliaceous
 dibutyl sulfideFL/FR
balsamic
 benzophenoneFR
ethereal
 ethyl formateFL/FR
floral
laevo-citronellolFL/FR
 citronellyl acetateFL/FR
(E)-citronellyl tiglateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl propanolFR
gamma-damasconeFR
 dihydrorose oxideFR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 floral pyranFR
 geranium dihydropyranFR
 geranium nitrileFR
 geranium oil africaFL/FR
 geranium oil egyptFL/FR
 geranium pyranFR
 geranyl formateFL/FR
 geranyl hexanoateFL/FR
 geranyl nonanoateCS
 geranyl tiglateFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
 muguet carbinolFL/FR
 musk acetateFR
 narcissus acetateFL/FR
 peony acetonitrileFR
 phenethyl formateFL/FR
 phenethyl pivalateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde digeranyl acetalFR
 phenyl propyl phenyl acetateFR
 rhodinyl propionateFL/FR
(Z)-rose oxideFL/FR
laevo-rose oxideFL/FR
 rose pyranFR
fried
(E,Z)-2,4-decadienal 
fruity
 citronellyl isobutyrateFL/FR
green
 diphenyl methaneFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 geranium absoluteFL/FR
 geranium thiazoleFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl isopropyl etherFR
 phenethyl oxyacetaldehydeFR
 phenethyl tiglateFL/FR
herbal
 geranium cyclohexaneFR
leathery
 leather cyclohexanolFR
woody
(E)-ethyl geranateFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
(E,Z)-2,4-decadienal 
balsamic
 phenethyl pivalateFL/FR
ethereal
 ethyl formateFL/FR
floral
laevo-citronellolFL/FR
 citronellyl acetateFL/FR
 geranium oil africaFL/FR
 geranium oil egyptFL/FR
 geranyl tiglateFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
 muguet carbinolFL/FR
laevo-rose oxideFL/FR
fruity
 citronellyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 geranyl hexanoateFL/FR
 rhodinyl propionateFL/FR
green
(E)-citronellyl tiglateFL/FR
 dibutyl sulfideFL/FR
 diphenyl methaneFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 geranium absoluteFL/FR
 geranium thiazoleFL/FR
 geranyl formateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 narcissus acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl formateFL/FR
 phenethyl tiglateFL/FR
(Z)-rose oxideFL/FR
medicinal
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 
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Potential Uses:
 geraniumFR
 greenFR
 roseFR
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 carrot root
Search Trop  Picture
 coal tar
Search  PMC Picture
 corn silk
Search Trop  Picture
 lovage root
Search Trop  Picture
 potato
Search Trop  Picture
 tomato
Search Trop  Picture
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Synonyms:
 bibenzene
 bifenyl
1,1'-biphenyl
 blinin
 carolid AL
 diphenyl
1,1'-diphenyl
 dowtherm
 fenbufen Imp. C (EP)
 lemonene
 phenador-x
 phenyl benzene
 phenylbenzene
 tetrosin LY
 xenene
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Articles:
US Patents: 3,931,166 - Certain 2,5-dimethyl-3-thiopyrazines
PubMed: Short communication: Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of milk supplemented with red ginseng extract.
PubMed: Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.
PubMed: Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.
PubMed: Antioxidant activities of Korean rice wine concentrates.
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