fenugreek seed
trigonella foenum-graecum seed
None found
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Name: trigonella foenum-graecum l.
FDA internal no.: 977155-29-5 
Category: spices, other natural seasonings and flavorings
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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FEMA Number: 2484 fenugreek seed
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Specific Food Labeling Requirements
Sec. 101.22 Foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings and chemical preservatives.

Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.10 Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.
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Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: garlic
Odor Strength: medium
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
Flavor Type: garlic
Taste Description:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
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Cosmetic Information:
None found
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American Natural & Organic Spices
Fenugreek Seed Whole or Ground, Available as 100% Certified Organic
AuNutra® Industries
Fenugreek Seed Powder
Bristol Botanicals
Fenugreek - ground Trigonella foenum-graecum
Bristol Botanicals
Fenugreek seed Trigonella foenum-graecum
El Malek
Fenugreek Seeds
100% natural and pure. EU, FDA
Elite Spice
Fuchs North America
Plant Lipids
Fenugreek Seed whole / ground
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Fenugreek Seed
Tengzhou Xiang Yuan Aroma Chemicals
Whole Herb
Fenugreek Seed
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Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: spices, other natural seasonings and flavorings
Recommendation for fenugreek seed usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -570.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -470.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: 420.00000800.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: 15.00000560.00000
fruit ices: 15.00000560.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -600.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -250.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Review of substances/agents that have direct beneficial effect on the environment: mode of action and assessment of efficacy
View page or View pdf
Retrospective analysis of the immunotoxic effects of plant protection products as reported in the Draft Assessment Reports for their peer review at EU level
View page or View pdf
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
 trigonella foenum-graecum l.
Chemidplus: 0977155295
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 trigonella foenum-graecum l.
Pubchem (sid): 135293149
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Other Information:
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS): View
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
Wikipedia: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
None Found
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
Search Trop  Picture
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 fenugreek - seeds
 fenugreek seed powder
 fenugreek seed whole or ground, available as 100% certified organic
 frigonella foenum graecum seed
 trigonella foenum-graecum seed
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PubMed: Safety, Efficacy and Toxicological Evaluation of a Novel, Patented Anti-Diabetic Extract of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Seed Extract (Fenfuro(TM)).
PubMed: Effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed on bone mechanical properties in rats.
PubMed: Fenugreek extract diosgenin and pure diosgenin inhibit the hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line.
PubMed: Fenugreek seed extract inhibit fat accumulation and ameliorates dyslipidemia in high fat diet-induced obese rats.
PubMed: Rhizobium tibeticum activated with a mixture of flavonoids alleviates nickel toxicity in symbiosis with fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.).
PubMed: The identification of a novel SIRT6 modulator from Trigonella foenum-graecum using ligand fishing with protein coated magnetic beads.
PubMed: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seed mucilage-gellan mucoadhesive beads for controlled release of metformin HCl.
PubMed: The selective cytotoxic anti-cancer properties and proteomic analysis of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum.
PubMed: Antioxidant, oxidative DNA damage protective and antimicrobial activities of the plant Trigonella foenum-graecum.
PubMed: Fenugreek seeds reduce aluminum toxicity associated with renal failure in rats.
PubMed: Catalytic degradation of organic dyes using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles.
PubMed: Protective effect of aqueous extract of seed of Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji) and seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: A comparative evaluation.
PubMed: Pharmacological effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. in health and disease.
PubMed: Antioxidant properties and quantitative UPLC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds from extracts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit.
PubMed: Analytical and semipreparative separation of 25 (R/S)-spirostanol saponin diastereomers using supercritical fluid chromatography.
PubMed: Galactomannan: a versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide.
PubMed: [Effect of fenugreek on the growth of different genesis tumors].
PubMed: A mechanism-based pharmacological evaluation of efficacy of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seeds in regulation of dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats.
PubMed: Chemomodulatory Effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (L.) Seed Extract on Two Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis.
PubMed: Fenugreek seed mucilage-alginate mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl: Design, optimization and evaluation.
PubMed: Identification of an additional protein involved in mannan biosynthesis.
PubMed: Antihyperglycemic and protective effects of Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder on biochemical alterations in alloxan diabetic rats.
PubMed: Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed powder on the antioxidant levels of high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin induced type II diabetic rats.
PubMed: Ameliorative effects of standardized extract from Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds on painful peripheral neuropathy in rats.
PubMed: Performance of some Ethiopian fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) germplasm collections as compared with the commercial variety Challa.
PubMed: Deep EST profiling of developing fenugreek endosperm to investigate galactomannan biosynthesis and its regulation.
PubMed: Beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum graecum and sodium orthovanadate on metabolic parameters in experimental diabetes.
PubMed: Phytotherapy of alcoholism.
PubMed: Antidiabetic and neuroprotective effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed powder in diabetic rat brain.
PubMed: The potential of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as a functional food and nutraceutical and its effects on glycemia and lipidemia.
PubMed: Synthesis and characterization of SIRT6 protein coated magnetic beads: identification of a novel inhibitor of SIRT6 deacetylase from medicinal plant extracts.
PubMed: Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract protects kidney function and morphology in diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity.
PubMed: Metabolic and molecular action of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and trace metals in experimental diabetic tissues.
PubMed: The Role of Adrenergic and Angiotensinergic Systems in Vascular Effect of Alcoholic of Extract Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed in Diabetic Rats.
PubMed: Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia pulp and Trigonella foenum graecum seed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
PubMed: Anti-inflammatory and anti-melanogenic steroidal saponin glycosides from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds.
PubMed: Biochemical monitoring in fenugreek to develop functional food and medicinal plant variants.
PubMed: The effect of fenugreek on the gene expression of arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes.
PubMed: Diosgenin present in fenugreek improves glucose metabolism by promoting adipocyte differentiation and inhibiting inflammation in adipose tissues.
PubMed: Modulation of quorum sensing controlled behaviour of bacteria by growing seedling, seed and seedling extracts of leguminous plants.
PubMed: A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects.
PubMed: Fenugreek seeds reduce atherogenic diet-induced cholesterol gallstone formation in experimental mice.
PubMed: Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.
PubMed: Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek seeds is mediated through inhibition of fat accumulation and upregulation of LDL receptor.
PubMed: A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers.
PubMed: Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory potential of standardized extract of Trigonella foenum graecum L and its constituents.
PubMed: In vitro intestinal glucose uptake is inhibited by galactomannan from Canadian fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum L) in genetically lean and obese rats.
PubMed: Antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its use in diabetes mellitus: a brief qualitative phytochemical and acute toxicity test on the extract.
PubMed: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seed) extract.
PubMed: The Modifying Effects of Galactomannan from Canadian-Grown Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) on the Glycemic and Lipidemic Status in Rats.
PubMed: Allergenicity and antigenicity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) proteins in foods.
PubMed: Protective action of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed polyphenols against alcohol-induced protein and lipid damage in rat liver.
PubMed: Trigoxazonane, a monosubstituted trioxazonane from Trigonella foenum-graecum root exudate, inhibits Orobanche crenata seed germination.
PubMed: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed polyphenols protect liver from alcohol toxicity: a role on hepatic detoxification system and apoptosis.
PubMed: Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum) polyphenols inhibit ethanol-induced collagen and lipid accumulation in rat liver.
PubMed: Composition and content of seed flavonoids in forage and grain legume crops.
PubMed: Soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed improves glucose homeostasis in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes by delaying carbohydrate digestion and absorption, and enhancing insulin action.
PubMed: In vivo effect of Trigonella foenum graecum on the expression of pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT4) in alloxan-diabetic rats.
PubMed: Long-term effect of Trigonella foenum graecum and its combination with sodium orthovanadate in preventing histopathological and biochemical abnormalities in diabetic rat ocular tissues.
PubMed: Low doses of vanadate and Trigonella synergistically regulate Na+/K + -ATPase activity and GLUT4 translocation in alloxan-diabetic rats.
PubMed: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in Chang liver cells.
PubMed: Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains.
PubMed: Restoration of ultrastructural and biochemical changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rat sciatic nerve on treatment with Na3VO4 and Trigonella--a promising antidiabetic agent.
PubMed: Chemopreventive activities of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) against breast cancer.
PubMed: Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses.
PubMed: Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder protects against histopathological abnormalities in tissues of diabetic rats.
PubMed: Diosgenin, a steroid saponin of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in F344 rats and induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.
PubMed: Effects of sodium-orthovanadate and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds on hepatic and renal lipogenic enzymes and lipid profile during alloxan diabetes.
PubMed: Lower doses of vanadate in combination with trigonella restore altered carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant status in alloxan-diabetic rats.
PubMed: Protective effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds in experimental ethanol toxicity.
PubMed: Oral administration of orthovanadate and Trigonella foenum graecum seed power restore the activities of mitochondrial enzymes in tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
PubMed: [Studies on chemical constituents from the seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum].
PubMed: Mitigation of thyroxine-induced hyperglycaemia by two plant extracts.
PubMed: Tobacco transgenic lines that express fenugreek galactomannan galactosyltransferase constitutively have structurally altered galactomannans in their seed endosperm cell walls.
PubMed: In vitro effect of fenugreek extracts on intestinal sodium-dependent glucose uptake and hepatic glycogen phosphorylase A.
PubMed: Variation in diosgenin levels among 10 accessions of fenugreek seeds produced in western Canada.
PubMed: Transfer specificity of detergent-solubilized fenugreek galactomannan galactosyltransferase.
PubMed: Restoration on tissue antioxidants by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) in alloxan-diabetic rats.
PubMed: Trigonellafoenum graecum (fenugreek) seed powder improves glucose homeostasis in alloxan diabetic rat tissues by reversing the altered glycolytic, gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes.
PubMed: Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent.
PubMed: Microdetermination of diosgenin from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds.
PubMed: Medicinal foodstuffs. XVII. Fenugreek seed. (3): structures of new furostanol-type steroid saponins, trigoneosides Xa, Xb, XIb, XIIa, XIIb, and XIIIa, from the seeds of Egyptian Trigonellafoenum-graecum L.
PubMed: Effects of vanadate, insulin and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) on creatine kinase levels in tissues of diabetic rat.
PubMed: Modulation of some gluconeogenic enzyme activities in diabetic rat liver and kidney: effect of antidiabetic compounds.
PubMed: Effect of antidiabetic compounds on glyoxalase I activity in experimental diabetic rat liver.
PubMed: Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.
PubMed: Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment of debitterized fenugreek powder in the mouse and rat.
PubMed: Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in diabetic rats.
PubMed: Allergy to fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum).
PubMed: Medicinal foodstuffs. IV. Fenugreek seed. (1): structures of trigoneosides Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, and IIIb, new furostanol saponins from the seeds of Indian Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
PubMed: Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds: extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol.
PubMed: Characterization of the hypoglycemic effects of Trigonella foenum graecum seed.
PubMed: Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.).
PubMed: Effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour in the rat: metabolic-endocrine correlates.
PubMed: Control of mannose/galactose ratio during galactomannan formation in developing legume seeds.
PubMed: The effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) crude saponins on Hisex-type chicks.
PubMed: Inhibitors of human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds. Demonstration and purification.
PubMed: Sensitivity of three leguminous crops to O3 as influenced by different stages of growth and development.
PubMed: Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes.
PubMed: Direct observation of cell wall structure in living plant tissues by solid-state C NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed: Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Ammi majus on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of legume-seed galactomannans in vitro : Cooperative interactions of a guanosine 5'-diphosphate-mannose-linked (1→4)-β-D-manno-syltransferase and a uridine 5'-diphosphate-galactose-linked α-D-galactosyltransferase in particulate enzyme preparations from developing endosperms of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba [L.] Taub.).
PubMed: Antidiabetic effects of subfractions from fenugreek seeds in diabetic dogs.
PubMed: Regulation of α-galactosidase activity and the hydrolysis of galactomannan in the endosperm of the fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed.
PubMed: Galactomannan formation and guanosine 5'-diphosphate-mannose: galactomannan mannosyltransferase in developing seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., leguminosae).
PubMed: Mobilisation of the major stored reserves in the embryo of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Leguminosae), and correlated enzyme activities.
PubMed: Genotype dependent radiosensitivity of autotetraploids in Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
PubMed: A dual rôle for the endosperm and its galactomannan reserves in the germinative physiology of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), an endospermic leguminous seed.
PubMed: Antagonism of cadmium and alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats by Trigonella foenum graecum.
PubMed: Carbon dioxide assimilation in some aerial plant organs and tissues.
PubMed: Reserve carbohydrate metabolism in germinating seeds of trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae).
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